BIOL 2P95 Lecture Notes - Extensor Hallucis Longus Muscle, Plantaris Muscle, Calcaneus

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Knee, Leg, and Foot
I. Knee Joint
A. General: Femur is angled inward ~9degrees in order to ensure body weight is centered
over each foot while walking. (> in females)
B. Bones
1. Patella: largest sesamiod bone in body
provides transfer point to straighten quadriceps line of action
* lateral condyle is deeper than medial to prevent patella from being pulled
laterally over knee
increases quadriceps moment arm about knee
2. Femur: medial/ lateral condyles, intercondylar notch, patellar surface
3. Tibia: medial/lateral condyles, medial/lateral plateus, intercondylar eminence,
tibial tuberosity
C. Cartilege/ligaments/bursa
1. articular cartilege
a. medial meniscus-attached to MCL, moon-shaped; (more often torn)
b. lateral meniscus—not attached, circular-shaped
c. coronary ligaments—attach menisci to tibia
2. Bursae: subcutaneous prepatellar, suprapatellar (continuous w/ synovial cav.),
anserine (under lig of semitendinosus, sartorius, & gracilis) subcutaneous
infrapatellar, deep infrapatellar
3. Ligaments:
patellar—from apex of patella to tibial tuberosity; transmits quadriceps force
fibular collateral—from lateral femoral condyle to fibular head; prevents side-to-
side motion
tibial collateral—from medial femoral condyle to tibia; prevents side-to-side
motion
ACL—from anterior intercondylar area of the tibia to the posterior lateral side of
the lateral condyle of the femur; fxn: prevents anterior displacement of tibia on
femur and hyperextension
PCL—from posterior intercondylar area of the tibia to the anterior lateral surface
of the medial condyle of the femur; prevents posterior displacement of tibia on
femur and => flexion stability
Oblique Popliteal—expansion of semitendinosus ligament, crosses knee from
lateral to medial; relatively weak => extension stability
Arcurate Popliteal—strengthens knee capsule posteriorly (in extension) by
spreading over entire posterior aspect of knee
D. Blood Supply
Genicular branches of poplitial artery (superior medial/lateral, inferior medial/lateral,
descending, middle), & recurrent branches of tibial artery (ant/post)
E. Innervation
Branches of obturator, femoral, tibial, & common peroneal nn.
F. Muscles/Movements
1. Flexion
biceps femoris, semitendinosus, semimembranousus, gastrocnemius
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