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Shoulder Terms Protonation

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Brock University
Dirk De Clercq

Shoulder 0. Terms Protonation: rotating forearm so palm is down/backwards Supination: rotating forearm so palm is upward/forward Protraction: pulling forward Retraction: pulling backwards Elevation Depression Rotation I. Upper Vs. Lower Limbs a. Similarities i. General arrangement of bones from Proximal to distal is similar ii. Same joint types (shoulder/hip=ball & socket; elbow/knee=hinge; wrist/ankle=plane, phalanges=hinge) iii. Compartmentalization of muscles with single nerve per compartment & 1- 2 major fxns of compartment iv. Nerves originate off plexuses (brachial/lumbosacral); w/ largest nerve posterior (sciatic/radial) b. Differences i. Rotation during development: Upper→External 45º Lower→Internal 90º ii. Elbow & knee flex in opposite directions iii. Palm=anterior; sole=posterior c. Function Differences Upper Limb Lower Limb Build for manipulation Built for stability Shoulder girdle=highly mobile Hip=more stable Protonation/Supination of forearm Reduced mobility Hand=generalized for diff. movements Foot=specialized for wt. support II. General Anatomy a. Shoulder Girdle (=clavicle & scapula) i. Holds shoulder joint away from trunk ii. Only bone-to-bone contact is sternoclavicular joint iii. 16 muscles originate/insert on scapula iv. Sternoclavicular joint 1. very strong synovial joint 2. gliding & rotating motion 3. Liagments: a. anterior/posterior sternoclavicular—between sternum and clavicle on A/P aspects of joint b. Interclavicular—between R/L clavicles c. Costoclavicular—between clavicle and 1 ribst v. Acromioclavicular Joint 1. fairly strong 2. Liagments a. Coracoclavicular (2)—coracoid process to inf. Clavicle b. Acromioclavicular—acromion to clavicle tip c. Coracoacromial—provides roof for joint 3. Shoulder Separation: dislocation of clavicle from scapula b. Shoulder Joint (Glenohumeral) i. Most commonly dislocated in body & most mobile joint 1. joint is held away from trunk via shoulder girdle 2. Only bone-to-bone contact is sternoclavicular joint 3. glenoid fossa is almost flat => humeral head not constrained 4. joint capsule is relatively weak (mainly held in by rotator cuff m.) ii. Glenohumeral Joint 1. Glenoid fossa: articulates with humeral head; has small glenoid labrum which deepens joint 2. Ligaments: (not very strong) a. Glenohumeral: (sup
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