Class Notes (808,238)
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Brock University (11,903)
CHYS 2P10 (161)
Anthony Volk (136)
Lecture 7

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Brock University
Child and Youth Studies
Anthony Volk

CHYS 2P10 Lecture 7. Sex Dr. Tony Volk [email protected] Defining Sex & Gender • Sex – A person’s biological identity – Chromosomes, physical identity and hormones • Gender – A person’s social and cultural identity • The two are typically strongly correlated Puberty Over Historical Time Factors Influencing Pubertal Timing • Increased health and nutrition appear to be the largest contributors to trend for puberty to begin at lower ages • Menarche delayed by low levels of nutrition (as is menstruation) • Adult height permanently stunted by poor nutrition Adolescence, Puberty, and Sexual Development • Aspects of rearing environment can affect girls’ reproductive strategy • Girls’ rate of pubertal maturation affected by: • Socioemotional stress • Maternal relationship • Father absence and relationship quality with father Figure 4.8: Two Developmental Pathways of Reproductive Strategies Adolescence, Puberty, and Sexual Development • Early maturing girls experience more emotional problems and behavioral problems relative to other girls • Early maturing boys experience positive and negative outcomes of their development • Longitudinal research suggests that late maturing boys may benefit from having additional time to develop social and intellectual skills Figure 4.9: Early-Maturing Girls are More Likely to be Frequent Users of Tobacco Why Have Two Sexes? • This is THE fundamental question – are the two sexes simply cultural constructs? • Obviously not, sex is genetic • So then the obvious question is why have two sexes? • Sexual reproduction produces greater diversity, parasite resistance, and reduces negative mutations Evolution and Sex • The two sexes may not necessarily have the same reproductive interests • This can lead to divergent evolutionary adaptations, as each sex seeks to maximize its own reproductive fitness • Are the sexes equal in their reproductive fitness? Women’s Success • The world record for having the most number of children officially recorded is 69 by the first of two wives of Feodor Vassilyev (1707-1782), a peasant from Shuya, 150 miles east of Moscow. In 27 confinements, she gave birth to 16 pairs of twins, seven sets of triplets and four sets of quadruplets! Men’s Success • The most prolific father of all time is believed to be the last Sharifian Emperor of Morocco, Mulai Ismail (1646-1727). In 1703 he had at least 342 daughters and 525 sons and by 1721 he was reputed to have 700 male descendents! • Then a study in 2003 suggested that up to 16 million people worldwide (.5% of men) — and 8 per cent of Asian men — were descended from Genghis Khan and his relatives!!! • THAT is some serio
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