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CHYS 1F90 Lecture Notes - Meritocracy, Infant Mortality, Concerted Cultivation

Child and Youth Studies
Course Code
Rebecca Raby

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CHYS 1F90, Feb. 26 & 28, 2013
Week 7: Class, inequality and poverty
Assignment hand in: have you underlined your thesis? Indicated on the
front of your assignment which CRC Article you’ve written on? Circled
which Section B questions you answered? If yes, yes, yes, then you can
hand it in!
I/ Defining class
II/ Inequality in Canada
III/ Contributors to inequality
IV/ Effects of class differences
V/ The deficit model
VI/ Cultural capital
VII/ Cultural capital in action
Main points
There are various overlapping but distinct definitions of class
Class-based inequality is a feature of our society and has a significant
impact on young people’s lives.
Cultural capital suggests hidden forms of class inequality.
I/ Defining class...
-Differences in wealth: “money and valuable goods a person or family
controls minus outstanding debt” (Macionis 259).
-Class as occupation, with a focus on income
-Relation to means of production
-proletariat, petty-bourgeoisie, and bourgeoisie
-Skills, educational resources
-Class composite
II/ Inequality in Canada
A) Ideology of classlessness:
idea that class not relevant
but really it is
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B) The growing gap
-Since 1980 top earnings up by 16.4%, lowest falling by 20.6%
-Net worth of those with income over $75 000 up 15.2% since 1999
-Net worth of those with income $20 000 - $29 000 down 21.2% since
C) Poverty
1) Some stats:
-About 1 in 10 children in poverty (2008, after-tax income)
-Children and youth 38% of food bank users but only 20% of the
-Average household debt: $112 329
See: Campaign 2000
http ://
2) Some patterns
-Indigenous peoples: 1 in 4 children in poverty
-Visible minorities: same
-Single moms: 1 in 5 children in poverty
-Working poor
III/ Contributors to inequality
A) Individual level:
-parental un/employment
-wealth (or not!)
-parental education/skills
-timing of parenthood
-family formation
B) Community/national level
-Un/employment levels
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