CHYS 1F90 Lecture Notes - Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder, Separation Anxiety Disorder
DepartmentChild and Youth Studies
Course CodeCHYS 1F90
ProfessorLauren Mc Namara
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Child and Youth Studies
Dr. J. McNamara
Who are we talking about?
10% of the population of children and youth
Defining “Abnormal” Development
What does it mean to have a disorder?
Development that is not within “normal” ranges
Norms are decided upon by development
–Example – childhood fantasizing
What is normal development?
When does fantasizing become “not the norm”?
Abnormal development is what characterizes disorder
Children and Youth Affected by Mood and Anxiety Disorders
General Characteristics in Children and Youth
·Poor performance in school
·Withdrawal from friends and activities
·Sadness and hopelessness
·Anger and rage
·Poor self-esteem or guilt
·Changes in eating or sleeping patterns
·Suicidal thoughts or actions
1% of pre-school children
2-3% of elementary school children
6-20% of adolescents
What causes Depression
Related to chemical imbalance in the central nervous system
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–Associated with decreased levels of neurotransmitters such as serotonin
However, it is not simply a lack of serotonin
The exact cause remains elusive
Genetic susceptibility and environmental triggers.
Why do some children cope well with adverse environmental conditions while others do not?
Children have a Psychological Toolkit (Allows us to cope with trauma, either in a healthy or unhealthy way)
Depression - Treatment
Prozac, Paxil, Zoloft etc.
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRI)
–Benefits unclear for children and youth
–Social support systems (psychologist will go discover what caused depression and help child work
–Offer your support
Child and Adolescent Bipolar Disorder
Defined by marked changes in mood and energy
Extreme highs (mania) and lows (depression)
Strong causal links to genetics
Monozygotic twins – 55%
Dizygotic twins – 5%
Bipolar is associated with fluctuation in neurotransmitters which affect the hypothalamus (central role in emotion
Serious side effects
–Confusion, lack of coordination, frequent urination, dehydration, thyroid problems
When treatment works…..
Cortisol levels (stress hormone)
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