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Lecture

CHYS 1F90 Lecture Notes - Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder, Separation Anxiety Disorder


Department
Child and Youth Studies
Course Code
CHYS 1F90
Professor
Lauren Mc Namara

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Child and Youth Studies
CHYS 1F90
Dr. J. McNamara
Fall/Winter 2011
Who are we talking about?
10% of the population of children and youth
Defining “Abnormal” Development
What does it mean to have a disorder?
Abnormal” Development
Development that is not within “normal” ranges
Norms are decided upon by development
Example – childhood fantasizing
What is normal development?
When does fantasizing become “not the norm”?
Abnormal development is what characterizes disorder
Children and Youth Affected by Mood and Anxiety Disorders
General Characteristics in Children and Youth
·Poor performance in school
·Withdrawal from friends and activities
·Sadness and hopelessness
·Anger and rage
·Poor self-esteem or guilt
·Changes in eating or sleeping patterns
·Substance abuse
·Suicidal thoughts or actions
Prevalence
1% of pre-school children
2-3% of elementary school children
6-20% of adolescents
What causes Depression
Related to chemical imbalance in the central nervous system

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Associated with decreased levels of neurotransmitters such as serotonin
However, it is not simply a lack of serotonin
The exact cause remains elusive
Genetic susceptibility and environmental triggers.
Why do some children cope well with adverse environmental conditions while others do not?
Children have a Psychological Toolkit (Allows us to cope with trauma, either in a healthy or unhealthy way)
Genetics
Personality
Parents
Friends
Etc.
Depression - Treatment
Medicinal
Anti-depressants
Prozac, Paxil, Zoloft etc.
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRI)
Benefits unclear for children and youth
Behavioural
Social support systems (psychologist will go discover what caused depression and help child work
through it)
Prevention
Warning signs
Offer your support
Child and Adolescent Bipolar Disorder
Characteristics
Defined by marked changes in mood and energy
Extreme highs (mania) and lows (depression)
Causes
Strong causal links to genetics
Concordance rates:
Monozygotic twins – 55%
Dizygotic twins – 5%
Bipolar is associated with fluctuation in neurotransmitters which affect the hypothalamus (central role in emotion
regulation)
Bipolar treatment
Medicinal
Mood stabilizers
Lithium, Depakote
Serious side effects
Confusion, lack of coordination, frequent urination, dehydration, thyroid problems
Behavioural
Psychotherapy
Counselling
Behavioural supports
When treatment works…..
Cortisol levels (stress hormone)
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