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Lecture 7

CHYS 2P10 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Gender Identity, Extraversion And Introversion, Conscientiousness

Child and Youth Studies
Course Code
Anthony Volk

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CHYS 2P10- Sexual Development
November 4, 2016
Defining Sex & Gender
Sex A perso’s iologial idetity
Chromosomes, physical identity and hormones
Gender A perso’s soial and cultural identity
The two are typically strongly correlated
Evolution and Sex
The two sexes may not necessarily have the same reproductive interests
This can lead to divergent evolutionary adaptations, as each sex seeks to maximize its
own reproductive fitness
Are the sexes equal in their reproductive fitness?
Woe’s “uess
The world record for having the most number of children officially recorded is 69 by
the first of two wives of Feodor Vassilyev (1707-1782). In 27 confinements, she gave
birth to 16 pairs of twins, seven sets of triplets and four sets of quadruplets!
Me’s “uess
The most prolific father of all time is Mulai Ismail (1646-1727). In 1703 he had at least
342 daughters and 525 sons and by 1721 he was reputed to have 700 male
Then a study in 2003 suggested that up to 16 million people worldwide (.5% of men)
and 8 per cent of Asian men were descended from Genghis Khan and his relatives!!!
Males can experience much more variance than women
Men have the biological capacity to have more biological offspring if they have more
sexual encounters
Evolutionary Summary
The two sexes were typically subject to the same evolutionary pressures (e.g., being
able to digest protein; socialize)
However, there are differences that are predicted and explained by evolutionary
theory based on different average life strategies for the sexes
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HEXACO Personality Traits
Men and women have different average levels of basic personality traits
Honest-Humility (+): Consumption with competition
Emotionality (++): Trait most associated with parenting
Extraversion: outgoing, no gender differences
Agreeableness: anger and patience, no gender differences
Conscientiousness (+): women more so than men (having lunch and homework done)
Openness to Experience (-): women less open to novel experiences that may be
Why These Sex Differences?
As adults, women are the primary caregivers of children in EVERY society (mothers)
It makes sense for mothers to worry more (E), be less exploratory (O) & be more
dependable (C) while competitive men are less sentimental (E) and more willing to
exploit others for gain (H)
Sex, Evolution, and Gender Differences
Parental Investment Theory: Trade off between investing time and resources in
parenting and mating lead to sex specific strategies and preferences
Misconceptions relating to evolution of male and female choices: Thinking males and
females are coldly conscious when making mating decisions; that sex differences are
atural ad should e prooted; that the only purpose of sex is reproduction
Small but reliable psychological differences between sexes:
Verbal ability
Visual/spatial abilities: Mathematical ability (not really true?)
Aggression: Overt vs. covert (very small difference)
Other Possible Sex Differences
Activity level
Fear, timidity and risk taking
Developmental vulnerability
Emotional expressivity/sensitivity
Cultural Influence
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