Presented interpersonal dilemmas with multiple characters to children. Role-taking skills improve as social cognition develops changes relationships. Understanding that human action is motivated by underlying mental states. Understanding of beliefs and photographs both develop between 3- and 4-years, Performance is not typically correlated (e. g. , zaitchik, 1991) Training on one does not affect performance on the other (slaughter, 1998) Can be impaired by injury or abnormal development. 95 children (ages 3;2 to 4;11, m = 4;0) Executive function (inhibitory control): whisper, gift delay, bear-dragon. Drd4 7-repeat very rare in asian populations (never been seen in han chinese). 109 children (ages 3;2 to 4;11 -- m = 4;0) 107 children (ages 3;2 to 4;11 -- m = 4;0) Executive functioning and theory-of-mind relation is robust across cultures. Number of older siblings predicts emergence of theory-of-mind reasoning (perner. Talk about mental states promotes theory-of-mind development (ruffman, slade. Reasoning about beliefs is associated with special neuro-cognitive requirements.