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Lecture 8

CLAS 1P92 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Imperium, Mass Suicide, Marcus Licinius Crassus

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Katherine Von Stackelberg

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Army and Empire
command; power (over something)
specifically used in military and political contexts
power conferred by some legal process
Absolute dominance over a certain area for a certain amount of time
Pax Romana
taking control=civil peace
display of conquered's arms
War and Peace
interdependent, not exclusive
War was the norm. Peace was unusual
The doors on the Temple Janus only closed if there was no war being fought by the legions.
Only closed 6 times in nearly 1000 years
Gods hated oppressors so they made sure they were always on the defensive even if their
reasoning was really ridiculous
The Roman Army
1. Professional, permanent standing army (cf ARD 294)
2. Enforced imperial policy (directly)
3. Determined imperial succession (indirectly)
a) Republican Army (753-31 BC)
citizen army
no pay. It was your civic duty to serve Rome
Seasonal campaigns.
Italian legions and native auxiliaries
during Rome's greatest period of expansion
b) Imperial Reforms (31 BC-330 AD)
20 year service and pension
Only 28 legions—before they would raise one whenever ; caused unrest and bids for power
introduced professionalism and kept people happy
Recruitment from all over Empire
Discharge=Roman citizenship—vehicle of Romanization
Legal marriages between soldiers and local women
children were legitimate and Roman
Army Organization
8 soldiers=1 tent group
10 tent groups=1 century (80 men)
6 centuries=Cohort (480 men)
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