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Monday, September 26th 2011
ENGL 1F95: Lecture 5
-hamburger essays will not do
-roadmap that has argumentative ideas going on as well
Figurative language - a beginning
Simile/Metaphor: a comparison between two distinctly different things is indicated or
-three parts to the figure: tenor, vehicle, and ground.
-Tenor: subject that is under discussion
-Vehicle: comparative term used in figure.
-Ground: properties of the vehicle that are applied to the tenor.
Important note: not all possible attributes of the vehicle will apply (warriors are also good
fighters, but this might not be relevant.)
Metonymy/Synecdoche: the literal term for one thing is applied to another with which it
is associated (used more often in prose) when a part is associated with a whole.
Metonymy is the association over time.
Personification: either an inanimate or an abstract object is spoken of as if it were
endowed with life or human attributes (eg. the rose blushes)
Apostrophe: (related to personification): addressing someone or something invisible or
not ordinarily spoken to (eg. love!)
Overstatement or Hyperbole: a statement containing exaggeration for effect
(Shakespeare’s “by heaven!”)
Understatement: implying more than is asserted (eg. “music has a far more pleasing
Paradox: A statement that seems logically contradictory or absurd, yet turns out to be
interpretable in a way that makes sense (eg. “in love with hate” or “pleasurable pain”).
Pun/Play on Words: the use of one word in one context that reminds us of the word’s
use in another context. (eg. Mercutio - “Ask for me tomorrow and you will find me a
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