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Lecture 5

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Catherine Nash

Wednesday October 10, 2012 Geography Lecture 5: Population Geography - talk about why populations decline and grow - how health influences population - how governments affect population change Slide 1: Population and the Geographical - demography – study the composition/characteristics of a population (age, sex, race) - population geographers want to know how and why people are distributed across space (why are they organized in that way) - why are some aging faster - why are there more female/males - population geographers Slide 2: Population density - ask what the population density - the number of people located in a defined area (i.e people per square meter) - total number people by the total area - no country has its population distributed equally - physiologic density is tied with agricultural land Slide 3: Egypt - Population density of Egypt, 2000. The population is situates mainly along the valley and delta of the River Nile. Slide 4: Population distribution - how are people distributed over the land - different colours on the map give you different levels of population density and distribution - looking at the history of the human race, where people migrated and began to build cities Slide 5: Population Composition - what are the characteristics of the population - distribution by sex and age (population pyramid) - man on left women on the right - see what poorer countries look like (higher birth rates and higher birth rates) - wealthier countries look different - small bulge at the bottom 10-20 - next bulge 40-65 they are sitting on the jobs that the younger people want , group of people that are going to come into medical and healthcare - the group 1-10 is smaller than the group of 15-20, so fewer will have paid into medical to healthcare, why the healthcare will not be able to support the people in the group above it - people 35+ are the ones who vote Slide 6: Median age and number of Children in Canada 1921-2006 The light blue line indicates the median age, which has gone up; the dark blue line indicates the average number of children per women, which has declined - baby boom in the 50’s - median age has gone up so fewer and fewer babies are born (aging population) - 61-70-80 big drop, in 60 birth control was introduced in the USA so therefore the birth rate has decreased Slide 7: Reliability of data - census – every 5 years, catches everyone in the country at that time, everyone has to complete it, government needs those numbers to release fund to people, a lot of people claim the census is not accurate, that it is nosey, that it misses homeless people - long for census, eliminate in 2010, incredibly specific, huge amount of detail, still mailed out but it is voluntary, head of census resigned because the elimination of the long census was to stressful - international data - world bank has lots of info about other global countries Slide 8: Why do populations grow or decline? - the population debate o 1. Malthus – food supplies were not grow fast enough like the rapid growth of the population o 2. Paul Ehrlich’s book Population Bomb – raised the question would the world be able to support itsself o 3. Esther Boserup (mid-1960’s) – argued that new technology would be able to create food – argued we had better quality food, better seeds – technology will help us out of our difficulties – tremendous worries about GMO’s Slide 9: World debate about Human population - risk of technology and GMOs are very worrisome for our food train * Slide 10: Population Change (world, regional, national, local) - Rate of natural increase o Number of births – number of deaths o 10 births – 5 deaths = + 5 (RNI) - Canadian RNA in 2010 was 2.99 per thousand * Slide 11: General Fertility Rates: - General fertility rate: actual number of live births per 1000 women of childbearing age, defined as between 15-49 - GFR = number of live births in one-year period x1000 women o mid- year number of females aged 15-40
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