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Lecture

Lecture Mar 27.docx

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Department
Geography
Course
GEOG 1F91
Professor
Daryl Dagesse
Semester
Winter

Description
Mar. 27, 2014 Soil Organic Matter • Humus, colloids, compost o Acts as a glue to hold soil together o Binds with clay to form “clay-humus complex”  Fig. 19.10 Soil Characteristics • Several diagnostic characteristics that give indications of what the soil is like o Colour  A reflection of chemical and biological processes operating in the soil  Certain diagnostic colours • Red: oxidized iron (well-drained) • Yellow: hydrated iron (poorly drained) • Black: highly organic (usually wet) • White: salty (usually dry) o Soil texture  Refers to the proportion of sand, silt, and clay present  Size of the mineral grains Fig. 19.5  Textural triangle  Texture controls number & size of pores  Controls moisture characteristics (e.g. pore pressure, eluviation/illuviation, water holding capacity) Fig. 19.13 o Structure  Soil doesn’t always operate as a series of individual particles  Held together by the clay content & organic matter  Single grain, blocky, platy, granular, prismatic, massive o Water holding capacity  Storage capacity • Held against gravity by capillary tension  Both wilting point and storage capacity are determined by soil texture Soil Horizons • Vertical variations in the soil o Based on:  Physical, chemical, and/or biological processes  Solid, liquid, and/or gas phases • Mineral horizons and layers o A, B, C, R, W • Organic horizons o O  f fibric material  m mesic material  h humic material o L  Accumulation of leav
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