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Challenges to the Peace (1).docx

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Brock University
David Boyk

Challenges to the Peace Monday, November 12 , 2012 HIST 1F95 Outline: 1. Italy 2. Japan Key Terms: Benito Mussolini (1883-1945) Fasci di Combattimento Partito nazionale fasciste fascism fasces Blackshirts Duce- hiel Hitler March on Rome King Victor Emmanuel III (r.1900-1946) Giacomo Matteotti Taisho Emperor (r.1912-1926) Taisho Democracy Ultranationlism Greater East Asian Co-Prosperity Sphere Italy Italy and Japan were unhappy with the outcome of Versailles although they were both among the allies. Italy switched allegiance over the course of the war- persuaded by Allie’s promise for lands. Italy’s role didn’t make much difference. After the war, Italy wasn’t treated as a great power- only given a few lands- Italians grew angry. Mussolini- Italian nationalist. Born to a blacksmith in 1883. Began political career as a socialist. Supported Italy’s joining of the war. Joined WWI, became wounded and returned home to pursue politics in a new party in 1919- Fasci di Combattimento- later called Partito nationale fasciste. When the party first began there were only 150 male members. Members wore all black and gained the nickname “blackshirts”. A symbol of the group was the Roman fasces- a tool used to beat traitors. Never used by the Partito to beat people, merely symbolic. People soon began to call Mussolini’s party “fascism”. By 1922, Mussolini’s party consisted of 300 000 men. Important differences between Mussolini and Hitler:  Mussolini’s party faced less of a racial issue- unlike Hitler with the Jews  Mussolini changed policies in context- whereas Hitler was quite consistent  Mussolini leans toward socialism  Wealthy Italians were worried about property, so Mussolini appealed to them- Hitler appealed to all classes of German nationalists Fascism- basic elements include authoritarian state with all power concentrated in a charismatic leader, nationalism, militarism, a hatred of communism and civil l
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