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David Boyk

Imperialism Monday, September 17, 2012 HIST 1F95 Reading Assignment due at the beginning of seminar next week Outline: i) Imperium ii) Empires: Old and New iii) The Scramble for Africa Key Terms: Qing Manchu Ottoman Turkey Persia Shan Charles Darwin Social Darwinism Lord Salisbury Indochina Leopold II Congo mission civilsatrice Cecil Rhodes Boer War John Hobson Imperium Today we live in nation states, but in the year 1900, the world was controlled by “empires” (from Latin meaning “control”). An empire is a state that governs many nations. Empires were typically headed by a monarch who was supported by an army and administration. Ruled over people with different religion/culture/language/traditions. The “oppressed” people were frequently deprived riches or goods unless they chose to assimilate to the empire. Some empires that existed around 1900: Chinese, Persian, Austro-Hungarian, Russian, British Empires: Old and New The Ching dynasty, founded by the Manchu people, briefly conquered China. Ultimately became very Chinese themselves by adopting Chinese way of life. Most especially the Ching dynasty adopted the Chinese method of government (founded by Confucius- similar to communism). Strange custom- One Chinese tradition was “foot binding” where feet would be wrapped very, very tightly in order to achieve smaller, “sexier” feet. It was easier to marry young girls off if they had been subjected to foot binding. This would make walking difficult for women- they would literally hobble in front of their men. At first China saw little need for foreign relations. By the middle of the 19th century, however, China needed to interact with sea-faring traders. Began to resist British attempts to trade goods (such as opium). Two brief wars occurred regarding this issue- they became known as the “opium wars”. Ottoman empire (modern Turkey) dominated Islamic world. The leader of this empire even saw himself as a religious leader, but respected al religions (if these people paid special tax). As modern methods of warfare appeared, Ottoman Empire couldn’t adapt. Persia, Turkey, and China were the three great empires of Asia. Tried to resist Western influence, which would erode their culture. Russian and Austro-Hungarian empires were Christian empires. In 1898, Lord Salisbury said, “May roughly
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