Class Notes (835,760)
Canada (509,376)
Brock University (12,091)
History (295)
HIST 2Q93 (11)
Lecture 6

lecture 6.docx

10 Pages
66 Views
Unlock Document

Department
History
Course
HIST 2Q93
Professor
Rebecca Beausaert
Semester
Fall

Description
HIST 2Q93 Lecture: Religion, Morality, and Republican Motherhood Outline: 1) Early Female Religious Figures: Anne Bradstreet and Anne Hutchinson 2) Quaker Women 3) The first Great Awakening, 1730s-1743 a. Profile: Diary of Hannah Heaton 4) Morality and Divorce 5) Introduction – “Republican Motherhood” Why is Religion important to women’s history? - Religion provided an outlet for female talent - Gave women a voice - Gave traits to women which they could use for influence - Early-mid 18 Cth - women are still being denied access to politics, commerce, economics - they are finding a niche for themselves in the church - a way to get public life - a way for women to influence children, other women, and men - another reason to study religion: as more women become involved in the church and church work, it is creating strong emotional ties and bonds between women - helps create bonds between women, family members, comfort to be around other women, allies among one another - fosters socialization relationships among women - in the earliest colonial New England and Southern US communities, women had little role in religious communities – they had very little to do there besides attend - outside of church all women could do was be examples of perfection – showing goodness and following the Bible - in this early colonial period, we see changes happening in religion Anne Bradstreet - born 1612 died in 1672 - first poet and the first female writer in the British North American continent to have a literary piece published - born in England, grew up in cultured circumstances - well educated for the period, unlike most women; studied history, languages, literature - at 16 she married Simon Bradstreet and they emigrated to the American colonies in 1630 and settled in Boston, then Cambridge - like most female migrants, when she stepped on the soil of new world, she was overwhelmed by the sickness, lack of food, primitive living conditions - she stays and refuses to return to England like most families - she tries to make the best of her new life - raised 8 children and took care of home, but became an avid writer - writes about her domestic tasks, but also a lot about religion - she lives in a time when traditional women roles were still at play; women were not to be educated like she was, but she valued her intellect - she was considered a free thinker and an early American feminist - she was bothered by the cultural bias towards women at the time – that their place was only in the home attending to family and husband’s needs - women were considered the intellectual inferiors to men - her poems were greatly criticized for being stolen from ideas of men – because of its content and because she was a woman - women shouldn’t be writing, they should be taking care of their families - she had to stress that she was a virtuous traditional woman because she was facing much criticism and wasn’t being taking seriously - she wrote love poems about her husband Simon which made her stand out - in the puritan society she was living in, you weren’t supposed to show outward expression of feelings and love - she was showing that love was not always about an economic arrangement - she was different in that she did not repress her love towards her husband - women were told to not express love and sexuality because it was seen as disruptive to their connection to God - she gave insight from a woman’s perspective on puritan views of salvation and redemption - she felt pressure to be godly - she writes about how god had punished her in her sicknesses and other sufferings - she is acting out against puritan values, but she cannot escape them - she is trying to seek redemption and salvation - we see a conflict between that emerging modern free thinking woman, and the woman that is stuck in a traditional puritan society that tells her to stay at home and if she acts out god will punish her Anne Hutchinson - born 1591 in England, died in 1643 - similar to Anne Bradstreet - daughter of Anglican minister and school teacher - received far better education that most girls had received - they both received about normal education and go on to change society – shows power of education - married William Hutchinson and were followers of the preacher John Cotton - when Cotton emigrated to the American colonies in 1633, the Hutchinsons followed a year later - they settled in Boston where Anne was a practicing midwife and helped in childbirth - she was forthcoming with her personal religious understandings - she often invited women from the community into her home and provided commentary on services that were recently provided - women in puritan society were expected to come to church, listen, and go home without discussing the material - men were starting to come to her religious meetings which was unique - she was espousing the covenant of grace – she was saying that she sees eternal life for anyone that follows God’s teachings - she is speaking out against the dominant view called the covenant of works – which says men were dominant in society - she is saying it’s not about gender, it’s about what within a person - this disagreement between those supporting Hutchinson and those supporting the male puritan leaders, results in the antinomian controversy (read about in article from a few weeks ago) - in 1637 she goes on trial for her religious views - she was convicted and banished from the colony for her religious views - Anne was a disgrace in the colony because she went against tradition and because she gained so many followers and was excommunicated from the church in 1638 - In 1643 her and her family are killed by aboriginal people - She is important for the way she challenges authority in the colonial period - They feared her because she was exposing subordination of women - We can see the fear instilled in women that forced them to believe the Bible that males dominated - We see in her how colonial women were persecuted when they stepped beyond their gender roles - We see how troubling it was for a women to dare to speak her mind publicly - Men were unaccustomed to outspoken women in this society - She is instilling fear in these male puritan leaders and had an ability to draw followers Quaker Women - One of the changes we see is the establishment of the Quakers - They were radical - Established in New England - Split old religion and formed their own religious - They were called the religion of friends and refered to eachother as “Friend” - They were seen as trembling (quaking) in front of the lord because they were so agitated - They believed you had the ability to be reborn if you had sinned - They believed in the divine light - Lay ministries – run by Quaker followers so that small groups could have their own ministries - The divine light was a continuing revelation – relooking at the old standards of gender roles - They looked at Eve being the reason women are inferior and said it was false - They reinterpreted meaning coming from the Bible and said they were wrong - Quakers saw Adam and Eve and thus men and women as equal - They said that if women found their inner light, the restrictions that the Bible imposed on their gender did not apply - They began arriving in the American colonies in the mid 1600s from England - Initially they faced persecution from religious sets like the puritans for not following their principles – i.e. execution - They became established and were no longer being punished in the mid..... - Quakers did not push women into marriage - They did not judge women who lived outside of social norms or social patterns i.e. women living together was not seen as abnormal - They allowed women to become profits and ministers - They believed that the qualifications to become a minister lay inside the person and was not determined by sex - They supported antinomians like Anne Hutchinson – against that gender hierarchies are determined by the Bible - Quaker women were actively engaging in church governance; making important decisions about local churches - The churches did not have single ministers, they had small ministries (meetings) - Quaker meetings were run by both men and women - Women could develop the rules that the group could abide by, they kept records and managed finances - It was like a leisure activity, something to look forward to, and could meet up with their friends and families - They felt active and not secluded in these meetings - They were exercising authority and later turns into a form of political power - They were urged to dress plainly and avoided obvious fashion trends i.e. skirt hoops, layers and petticoats, high hair styles and head dresses - They believed that more ornate fancy clothing was a mark of idleness – what rich women wore who didn’t do anything in society - They wanted to be distinguished as hardworking people who didn’t need fancy dress – don’t need excess – simple and plain lives - Quaker women always wore a green aprons - They saw equa
More Less

Related notes for HIST 2Q93

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit