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Lecture 1

KINE 1P93 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Extensor Digitorum Longus Muscle, Flexor Digitorum Longus Muscle, Tibialis Posterior Muscle

Physical Education and Kinesiology
Course Code
Nancy R Francis

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Planes of movement
Sagittal plane: Divides the body into left and right halves
Frontal plane: Divides the body into front and back portions
Transverse plane: Divides the body into upper and lower parts
Directions and Positions
Superior: Up (towards the head)
Inferior: Inferior (towards the feet)
Cranial: Closer to the head > used when referring to structures on the trunk
Caudal: Closer to the buttocks > used when referring to structures on the trunk
Anterior: refers the to a structure further in front
Posterior: pertains to a structure further towards the back of the body than another
Medial: pertains to a structure closer to the midline (line straight down the body) of the
Lateral: refers to a structure further away from the midline
Distal: means a structure away from the truck of the body's midline
Proximal: designates a structure closer to the truck
Superficial: describes a structure closer to the body's surface
Deep: refers to a structure deeper in the body
Movements of the Body
Extension: is movement that straightens or opens a joint
Flexion: is the movement that bends a joint or brings the bones closer together
Adduction: of a joint brings a limb medially toward the body's midline (adding to the
Abduction: moves a limb laterally away from the midline
Medial and lateral rotation: occur at the shoulder and hip joints. When the joint medially
rotates, the limb turns in toward the midline. Lateral rotation swings the limb away from
the midline.
Circumduction: is possible only at the shoulder and hip joints. It involves a combination
of flexion, extension, adduction and abduction; together these actions create a cone-
shaped movement. Swimming the backstroke requires circumduction at the shoulder
Lateral flexion occurs only at the axial skeleton-for example, when the neck or vertebral
column bends laterally to the side.
Elevation and depression refer to the movement of the scapula and jaw.
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Elevation is movement superiorly.
Depression is movement inferiorly.
Supination and pronation describe the pivoting action of the forearm.
Supination (carrying a bowl of soup) when the radius and ulna are parallel to each
Pronation (turning a door knob) takes place when the radius crosses over the ulna,
turning the palm down. Supination and pronation also occur at the feet.
Inversion and eversion: occurs as a combination of movements of several joints of the
Inversion (turn in) elevates the foots medial side and brings the sole of the foot medially.
Eversion (turn out) elevates the foots lateral side and moves the sole laterally.
Plantar flexion and dorsiflexion only refer to movement at the ankle.
Plantar flexion is preformed by moving the ankle to point your foot into the earth or
stepping on a cars gas pedal.
Dorsiflexion is the opposite movement, such as moving the ankle to let off the gas pedal
Protraction and retraction pertain to the scapula, clavicle, head and jaw.
Protraction occurs when one of these structures moves anteriorly
Retraction is movement posteriorly.
Deviation means to wander from the usual course. Lateral deviation occurs at the
mandible during talking or chewing.
Opposition happens only at the carpometacarpal joint of the thumb. It occurs when the
thumb pad crosses the palm toward the last (pinkie) finger.
Types of Joints
A ball and socket joint- Spherical surface of the one bone fits into the dish-shaped
depression of another bone (hip)
An ellipsoid joint- consist of an oval-shaped end of one bone articulating with the
elliptical basin of another bone. (Knee)
A gliding joint- is usually between two flat surfaces and allows the least movement of all
synovial joints (foot bones)
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Lateral and Medial Malleoli (Ankle Bones)
The lateral medial malleoli are the large, conspicuous knobs on either side of the ankle. The
broader medial malleolus is located at the distal end the tibia, while the more slender lateral
malleolus protrudes from the distal fibula.
Malleolar Grooves (Ankle Bone Grooves)
Both the medial and lateral malleoli have small vertical grooves carved into their posterior
surfaces. These grooves are designed to offer stability and leverage to tendons that bend around
the ankle. Because these tendons lie either inside the groove or beside it, it can be difficult to feel
the actual depression of the groove.
Muscles of the Leg and Foot:
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