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Lecture 9

LING 2P91 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Apple I, Tidal Volume, Lung Volumes

Course Code
Barbra Zupan

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Female Vocal Characteristics
-higher Fo – higher formant frequencies; larger bandwidths
-breathy – more noise ll in interformant regions *males vf are more likely to close
completely whereas female, it leaks through
-weak – lower sound pressure level
-more glottal leakage – stronger aspiration noise; larger bandwidths
Laryngeal Aging
-infants –high Fo (400-600Hz)
-small vocal tract; small vocal folds
-vocal folds vibrate very quickly bc of size but also due to lesser mass
-children – vocal folds lengthen and thicken; Fo decreases
-puberty – laryngeal growth in both males and females; but 2-3 times more in males
(length and mass)
-average vf length – males: 11.57mm females: 4.16mm
-drop in Fo for males is ~1 octave but only 2.5 semi tones for a female
Table 5.6 –Fo by age group
-elderly – males –Fo increases – vocal tract begins to degenerate and lose mass
- females – Fo decreases – vf acquire mass (hormonal changes associated
with menopause)
-health is a factor – elderly adults who are healthy sound younger
Lung Volumes
-Tidal volume (TV) –amount of air inhaled and exhaled during one cycle of
-females generally inhale and exhale less air when quiet breathing than
-Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV) – amount of air that is inhaled in addition to TV)
-allows us to take in more air to increase the volume of our voice
-Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV) – amount of air that can be exhaled below TV
-allows us to say a longer sentence/sustain voice without taking in more air
-Residual volume – RV is the air that is still in the lungs even after a maximum
Figure 7.9 p.241
Lung Capacities
-Vital Capacity (VC) – TV + IRV + ERV
-maximum amount of air that can be exhaled after maximally inhaling
-Functional Residual Capacity (FRC) – ERV + RV
-amount of air in lungs at end of expiration
-Inspiratory Capacity (IC) – TV + IRV
-amount of air that can be inhaled at end of expiration
-Total Lung Capacity (TLC) – TV + IRV + ERV + RV amount of air lungs can hold
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