LABR 2P93 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Class Conflict, Pejorative, Republic

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5 Feb 2016
Department
Course
Professor
LABR 2P93
January 25, 2016
Democracy, Citizenship and Slavery
The Age of Democratic Revolutions, c1750-1850
-The American Revolution, 1776-1783
-The French Revolution, 1789-1799
-The Haitian Revolution, 1791-1804
-Spanish American Wars of Independence, 1808-1833
-Revolutions of 1848 (Europe)
-The basis for political legitimacy and nature of citizenship debated
-Traditional elites and wealthy “middle class” struggle for power
-Popular rebellions
-Revolution and war in Europe undermines colonial rule
-These revolutions overlap
-Popular = lots of people
Images of Revolution
-Made famous images
-Paintings are intended to last long time, look a lot of time and materials to
create
-important
Revolutionary Rhetoric
-The American and French revolutions produced famous rhetoric about
freedom
-Words that are nice to say/read
-The 1774 American Declaration of Independence contains some of the
greatest examples
-Declaration is ;rst, constitution comes later
-It started, for example, that “all men are created equal” and hold “certain
unalienable Rights” including “life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness”
-Unalienable (rights you can’t take away)
Revolutionary Reality
-Rhetoric means language that is persuasive, whether in writing or speech
-The wonderful rhetoric of the democratic revolutions causes some to overlook
actual historical realities that contradict the rhetoric
-Rhetoric is not reality, but part of reality
-Republicanism in practice did not treat “all men” equally. Social inequality
continued to be reinforced by political inequality, and the legal status of
women probably declined
-Form of politics created “republicanism”
-Initially these inequalities were created
-The key to understanding the e@ects of the democratic revolutions on
ordinary workers is citizenship
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Citizenship
-Citizenship is a legal status, applicable to the citizens of a given country
-We usually think of citizenship as a set of political rights, including the right to
vote
-Citizenship involves responsibilities too, such as the responsibility to pay
taxes
-We can imagine citizenship in broader terms too. For example, as including
social rights, such as the right to publicly funded health care services in
Canada
Citizens
-Citizens are members of a political community (a polity). They have rights
within this community (such as voting) and responsibilities to the community
(such as paying taxes)
-Is a status
-Membership implies participation. Citizens participate in their political
community
-When we vote we are participating
-Di@erent levels of participation
-A polity is not the same as a society, or the public. Citizens are part of a
general population that includes non-citizens
-Non-citizens are not part of polity
Origins of Citizenship
-The word citizen comes from a Latin term from Roman times, and the idea is
even older than ancient Rome
-But the citizenship we know today is di@erent from pre-modern and early
modern forms. It is based in ideas of popular sovereignty, and a historical
process that began during the Era of Democratic Revolutions
-Popular – lots of people
-Sovereignty – right to rule/govern
Popular Protest in Revolutionary America
-Stamp act riots
-Imperial act
-Increase taxes on stamps
-Big issue so people protested
-Decision made by imperial government which the citizens did not
participate in
-Not popular sovereignty
-March of women on Versailles
-High prices on bread
-Gather lot of supporters
-Women’s participation
Popular Democracy
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