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Science and Religion in the Late Renaissance and Early Modern Era LEC 10

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Brock University
Medieval and Renaissance Studies
Andre Basson

1 MARS 1F90 Lecture 10 Science and Religion in the Late Renaissance and Early Modern Era 1. The Scientific Revolution [the sun centered idea started the revolution; scripture was the only source of information and knowledge - religious uncertainty, now having other areas in question became a time of intensive question of their knowledge] - [replaced the bible] a. A new theory places the sun at the centre of the universe b. Questioning the traditional sources of Europe’s scientific knowledge c. Observation and independent human reasoning [ a new source of authority based on observation and human reasoning] d. The importance of Aristotle and Ptolemy in medieval universities i. Interest in the writings of the ancient Greeks and Romans ii. Aristotle and Ptolemy combined with Christian theology iii. The medieval view of the universe [earth created by God, at the center of the universe all the planets and stars revolving around the earth. past all of that is the heavens where God lives] e. Copernicus i. A new view of the universe (16 century) [changed viewpoint of the bible science] ii. Intellectual revolution? [caused intellectual crisis] (wanted to simplify Ptolemy's messed up astronomy) iii. Copernicus and Ptolemy iv. Earth and planets moved around the sun v. On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Bodies vi. Protestant and Catholic reaction f. Tycho Brahe i. Discovers a new star ii. concludes that the universe above the moon is not changless iii. The universe above the moon was not changeless iv. The planets moved around the sun, but the sun moved around the earth v. Johannes Kepler: the planets orbited the sun in elliptical movements g. Galileo Galilei i. Galileo and the telescope [benefited from telescope] ii. The craters of the moon iii. The sun, the planets, and the earth rotated on their own axes [earth around the sun] iv. The Inquisition [agree that his theory is wrong or die, h. Sir Isaac Newton 2 i. Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy (1687) [explain science mathematically] [the methods they used are the revolutionary way of people in the west arrived at knowledge] ii. A complete picture of the universe iii. The beginning of modern science of physics i. A new way of arriving at scientific knowledge i. Sir Francis Bacon, the source of knowledge, and the inductive method [acquire scientific knowledge through observation and experimentation - VS what's in the book (bible)] ii. René Descartes 1. The Protestant Reformation and the intellectual crisis in Europe 2. Objective truth and the leap of faith [started with doubting everything about humans in the world] 3. Skepticism 4. Descartes and radical doubt 5. “I think, therefore I am” [human being becomes that of knowledge - logically step by step] 6. Descartes and the deductive method [builds up from self to truth] 7. Descartes and autonomous human reason [looks at himself and then works from there, while Bacon worked from people to himself] 8. Human reason in medieval Christian thought [human reason becomes source of knowledge - believed you could get a point from human reason but has to be proved with God] 9. Newton a. Combines Bacon’s inductive and Descartes’ deductive method b. The two tests and the foundation of the modern scientific method [any statement had to be tested by two tests, the compatible with observation and experimentation.] c. it had to be in logical agreement with everything else that was
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