American Psychological Association (APA)
Referencing Style Guide
Overview Other materials
Referencing Audio recording
Intellectual honesty and plagiarism
Australian Bureau of Statistics (AusStats)
About the APA style Brochure
In-text citation: Referencing sources
within the text Government report (online)
Image on the Internet
Electronic items Lecture (unpublished)/ personal
Referencing secondary sources Podcast (from the Internet)
Different works of the same author and
same year Thesis
Video recording, television broadcast or
episode in a series
Books and book chapters
Video (from the Internet)
Web page / document on the Internet
Three to six authors
More than six authors
No author (inc
Chapter, article or section in a book
Chapter or article in an edited book
Journal articles, newspaper articles and
Journal article (print version)
Journal article (full-text from electronic
Non-English journal article translated
Newspaper article (available in print)
Newspaper article (from electronic
Article (from the Internet, not available
in print version)
Proceedings of meetings and
symposiums, conference papers
Systematic reviews University of Western Sydney Library APA Referencing Style Guide
Referencing acknowledges the sources that you use to write your essay or assignment paper.
In-text citations are used throughout your writing to acknowledge the sources of your information.
The full references for the citations are then listed at the end of your assignment paper in the
It is important to first consult your unit outline, lecturer or tutor for the preferred citation
style for each unit you undertake.
Intellectual honesty and plagiarism
Students are referred to the University of Western Sydney Calendar "Misconduct - Student
Academic Misconduct Policy" section for basic definitions and University policies relating to
intellectual honesty, cheating and plagiari.m
About the APA style
The American Psychological Association (APA) style is a widely used author -date system of
referencing or bibliographic citation. This guide covers basic explanations and examples for the
most common types of citations u sed by students. This guide is based on theublication Manual of
the American Psychological Association (6th edition) which is available at all UWS libraries. If you
are unable to find the referencing example you require in this guide, me detailed information and
examples can be found in the above publication.
Current information can also be obtained via the Internet from the official APA Style website
http://www.apastyle.org which includes tutorials, a blog and FAQs. Corrected Sample Papers from
the Publication Manual can also be found on the APA website.
For further support, please contact UWS library:
o Phone 02 98525353
o Online Librarian
In-text citation: Referencing sources within the text
Throughout the text of your paper you need to ac knowledge the sources used in your writing.
Whenever you present a statement of evidence such as a quote, or when you use someone else's
ideas, opinions or theories in your own words (paraphrasing), you must acknowledge your sources.
Some examples of how to cite sources within your paper are given below.
If you use the name of the author(s) in your writing, place the year of publication of the work in
parentheses after the authors name.
1 University of Western Sydney Library APA Referencing Style Guide
Mullane (2006) conducted research into the effect of
If you refer to a work in the text of your paper, place the author's last name and the year of
publication of the work in parentheses at the end of the sentence.
The research conclusively proved a correlation between the results (Mullane, 2006).
Note: When you summarise the general idea of a source in your own words, you must cite the
author and year of publication of the work as shown below. APA does not require you to provide the
page number unless you use a direct quote, however if you paraphrase or summarise a specific
paragraph or section you should consider including the page number.
If you directly quote fewer then 40 words, enclose the quotation by double quotation marks within
the text. The year of publication of the work along with the page number(s)* of the quote should be
provided in parentheses.
Mullane (2006) referred to this correlation as a statistical anomaly (p. 118), contributing....
It was found that the correlation was a statistical anomaly (Mullane, 2006, p. 118).
* When there are no page numbers, but the sources contains headings or numbered paragraphs,
use a section name or paragraph number, e.g. Jones (2008, Introduction section) or Roberts (2008,
If the paragraphs are not numbered, cite the heading and the number of the paragraph following the
heading, e.g. Anderson (2005, Discussion section, para. 2)
If the quotation is greater than 40 words it should be displayed in a double-spaced, indented block
(1.3 cm) without quotation marks.
Mullane (2006) stated that:
If any similar qualitative research is to be undertaken in the future, then stringent controls should be
put in place to ensure such statistical anomalies do not occur through lack of methodological rigor,
particularly through corruption of data inadequately stored and processed (p. 66).
If you use more than one source to write a statement in your paper, the citation can be presented
using semi-colons between works as follows:
Separate sources, different authors:
and a number of studies have shown identical results (Sanders, 2008; Smith, 2009).
Two or more publications by the same author:
It was found that...(Smith, 2000, 2004)
Sources that you cite in your writing are listed in detail at the end of your document in a reference