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Bhagavad Gita.docx

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Brock University
Richard Brown

Pre philosophical features of Indian thought 5/12/2013 4:57:00 PM There are assumptions that underlie our thinking, until we find out that our culture is different than others 1. time karma daksha= suffering moksha= freedom and liberation samsara= bondage they believe that time is circular vs. linear time karma rebrirth, reincarnation, transmigration Karma is any act or deed that is undertaken at the level of individual or personal responsibility Karma is the cosmic universal law which ensures that every act receives its perfect consequences Egerton’s formula Desire- resolve, deed, fruit, fate Fate and temperament are two words for the very same thing You are what you do, did and will do Novalis: fate and temperament are two words for the same thing Generally good desires equal a good fate, bad desire means bad fate How is it possible to avoid fate? Samsara Wheel of rebirth the karmic cycle to be in the human condition caused by error and ignorance The human condition is suffering (duhkha) Suffering: to be concipis of a state better than one you are in. Vedas- Upanishads Brahma (creator God) Brahmin (priest castes Brahman (absolute bing) Atman conscious self Buddhi= intellect Manas=mind Atman- Brahman Kshariaya= warrior Vais ya=merchant Sudra Pariahs= outcast Samkhya (theory) Yoga (practice) Yogas- pathways Jnana yoga- way of action Bhakti yoga= way of devotion Gunas=qualities Prakriti=matter or nature Gunas of Prakriti= qualities of nature Sattavas and sattvic guna Rajas or rajasic guna Tamas or tamasic guna Purusha= self or individual consciousness Purusha= self or individual concioussness Krishna= avatar of Vishana Dharma=moral duty There is only atman Buddhi is the driver of the chariot Reigns are the meinas horses are senses Jnana- knowledge Lame man, blind man in the middle of the jungle Arjuna is upset for all the wrong reason, as a warrior, and of the rajasic type It is his dharma to fight and participate in this just war Arjuna does not want victory, he would be killing his own people We should act but do our prescribed way in such a way it is done in attachment from the action, without accepting the fruits Desire leads to resolve, to action Don’t accept the fruits for your actions Arjuna wonders if it is better to be killed by his kinsmen rather than killing them It is bad karma to wreck or ruin a family The laws codify how each class should ask, the law or dharma is destroyed with the family making family lawless Without men, women are vilified He is indecisive whether he should kill or be killded He is determined not to fight in the battle Krishna tells Arjuna it is very un manly to act that way’ Krishna openly tells Arjuna he is not to play the eunuch Arjuna is warned that his disgraceful actions will prevent hin form getting into heaven Nor we know what is better whether we conquer them or obey us Arjuna’s statement saying he will not fight is a sign of his passivity Arjuna decision is like a train track, stay on or get off Arjuna is in a similar mode of decision When Arjuna asks what is higher, performance of action , he said performance is higher Arjuna is passive by not being able to decide what course of action to take Krishna knows the outcome Krishna answers what course if action is better, Krishna’s answers seem shallow, but are offered to Arjun anad us progressively Krishna says “Never was there a time where I was not, nor you , nor these lords, nor will there ever be a time hereafter when we shall cease to be” Krishna tells Arjuna that the self enters the body and can experience pleasure and pain Krishna’s reasoning on the self that always is always must b, of the reasoning and existence there coming to be and cannot cease to be Krishna says he should fight because the souls of others are indestructible Krishna emphasizes that all bodies come to end because they are going to die regardless and he should not worry about killing Who is this one who neither slays nor slain: the body> the self or spirit? The body self? Krishna focuses on the self because what other self can describe as permenant and all knowing Can two or more individual things be all pervading? Atman is identical to Brahman, cannot slay nor can cause to slay killing and being killed demand that we understand demand that we know who slays what who slays is the principle of the entire act We are told that weapons do not burn it out , water does not make it wat wind does not dry it out, giva can only be a character of Atman Krishna says the law of karma, everything that dies must be reborn and everything that is born must die, what dies is reborn Arjuna is merely the occaision for God’s will to be dominate because God has decided the outcome of the war saying that we will all die anyway, cannot be an answer because it would conceive any act of death Krishna returns to original argument, since he is a warrior, it is his dharma to fight, then he should fight Arjuna should be happy to fight in this war, if he doesn’t fight he will get a bad reputation that is worse than death If arjuna is slayed in a battle he would go directly to heaven, if he slays he will live in paradise, if he fights he cannot possibly lose Krishna tells Arjuna about the perfect yoga un, to either a good or bad reputation How can Krishna reconcile and Arjuna be indifferent Krishna refers to Sankhya –rational analysis and yoga- how to cast away the bondage of works Sankya theory requires thinking and knowledge performance and works without regards for their fruits, do your works without regard for their fruits although sanhkya and yoga differ a wise person does not se a difference, both have same goals act of sankya is better than acting for the fruits of your action Two paths of knowledge jnana yoga- for sattvic types karma yoga two paths of theory differ in practice but same in goal even minded, skill in action , open mindedness is a load of passage because it addresses both parts of Krishna’s dilemma main point- if you do not accept the fruits of your action, you cannot follow your action meaning Arjuna should not follow the fruits of his action , but continue to act and do his duty but not the fruits of the action he recognizes the difficulty from breaking away from his senses, realizes the mind is very fickle the Gita’s account is what Freud would call obsessional neurosis Arjuna is still bewildered and confused and cannot tell the real difference between Sanhkya and Yoga “not by abstention from work does a man attain freedom from action nor by mere renunciation does he pertain perfection” remove desires of fruits of actions or stop performing any deeds but he would continue to desire fruits of action or to give up both the fruits and the other action, but it is impossible to not act the only real alternative Arjuna should do the acts that must be done Rjuna has real choice in the manner, denies Arjuna to follow any other nature he should do his work as a sacrifice Do your work as a sacrifice if the fruits of your action are cast off , the fruits cannot be for you Perform the action that has to be done without attachment(desire) Man performs highest action without attachment Doing your duty aintains the world in order 3, 20 Even God must(3.22) work or the world will fall apart(3. 24) What we must do more speaking is what we should do out of natural necessity since we are compelled to follow our natures It is materials nature’s three constitutents ( gunas of prakriti) that do all w But he who knows the distinction between the self and the modes of nature and their works, understanding it is th
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