9 Pages
Unlock Document

Brock University
Physical Education and Kinesiology
John Mitterer

Chapter 13: Motivation and Emotion James Olds and Milner- 1954, discovered pleasure centre in brain of rats through electrical stimulation lever Motivation: a general term for a group of phenomena that affect the nature, strength, or persistence of an individual behaviour Common definition: driving force that moves us to a particular action Stimuli that have become associated with pleasant or unpleasant events motivate approach/avoidance behaviours Deprivation of a reinforcer increases organisms preference for a particular behaviour There are physiological, behavioural, cognitive and social approaches to motivation People have motivation to gain a reinforcer or avoid a punisher Regulatory Systems Regulatory behaviours: tends to bring physiological conditions back to normal, thus restoring the condition of homeostasis Homeostasis: process which physiological characteristic (body temperature, blood pressure) are regulated so that they remain at their optimum level 4 features of System 1. System variable: variable controlled by regulatory mechanism (temperature in a room) 2. Set point: optimum value for system variable (22.5 degrees C) 3. Detector: Mechanism that signals when system variable deviates from set point (thermostat) 4. Correctional mechanism: capable of restoring the system variable to set point(heater turns on when temp goes below 22.5, or off when it goes above) Negative Feedback: a process whereby the effect produced by an action serves to diminish or terminate that action. Regulatory systems are characterized by negative feedback loop. Drive Reduction Hypothesis: the hypothesis that a drive produces an unpleasant state that causes an organism to engage in motivated behaviours (hunger is a drive that produces an unpleasant state caused by going without food for a long time, cause one to engage in behaviours that will lead to food) reduction of drive is assumed to be reinforcing (Eating is a drive reducing act, and is reinforcing) biological needs, caused by deprivation of necessities of life are unpleasant hypothesis is disfavoured b/c drive is impossible to measure, and b/c events we experience as reinforcing are also exciting or drive increasing in general: the experiences we really want to repeat are those that increase our level of arousal Physiology of Reinforcement neural circuits stimulated by electricity are also responsible for the motivating effects of natural reinforcers such as food, water, or sexual contact, and drugs such as cocaine or alcohol. Essential component of reinforcement system is neurons that release dopamine as their transmitter substance Optimum level theory Optimum level hypothesis: organisms will perform behaviour that restores the level of arousal to an optimum level Attempt to explain positive and negative reinforcement When arousal is too high, less stimulation is reinforcing and vice versa Diversive exploration: response to understimulation (boredom) that increases the diversity of the stimuli the organism prefers Specific Exploration: response to overstimulation that leads to the needed item, decreasing drive level Hebb studied arousals affect on effectiveness of behaviour Optimal arousal organized effective behaviour Suboptimal ineffective due to insufficient motivation Too much arousal disorganized therefore ineffective Problem with theory is again that drive cannot be measured, so cant say what optimum level is Perseverance: tendency to continue to perform a behaviour even when it is not being reinforced, well motivated Effect of intermittent punishment behavior usually ceases when it is no longer reinforced if previously reinforced every time, extinction is rapid, if intermittently reinforced, behaviour persists (perseverance) previous experience with various schedules of reinforcement affects perseverance Effects of unnecessary reinforcement Extrinsic rewards: those that originate outside oneself Intrinsic rewards: originate inside oneself Being paid to get good grades causes children to be motivated by extrinsic rather than intrinsic rewards Overjustification Hypothesis: superfluous application of extrinsic rewards to intrinsically motivated behaviour will undermine intrinsic motivation loss in intrinsic motivation After shift from intrinsic to extrinsic reinforcement, and extrinsic rewards disappear, the person will show what amounts to a loss of interest and perseverance in the reinforced activity Lepper Greene and Nisbett(1973) Experiment confirming overjustification hypothesis Children drawing during play time (intrinsically motivated activity) subject to 3 conditions 1) Child asked to make drawing for a prize ( extrinsic reward) 2) Child asked to make drawing, and unexpectedly received prize 3) Child neither offered nor given prize for making drawing st After the study there was less intrinsic motivation to draw in children from 1 group, compared to 2 ndand 3 groups, who were still intrinsically motivated The fact that 2nd group was still intrinsically motivated shows that expectation of a reward is what affects behaviour Learned Helplessness: a response to exposure to an inescapable aversive stimulus, characterized by reduced ability to learn a solvable avoidance task; thought to play a role in the development of some psychological disturbances organisms can learn that they have no control over their destiny Maier and Seligmen(1976) Experiments demonstrating that an
More Less

Related notes for KINE 2P95

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.