Two of Sacks‟ case histories were assigned for the seminar
concerned with the issue of the unconscious mind. Briefly describe one of these (2 marks) and
explain what it teaches us about a) whether we have an unconscious mind (that
is, thoughts that we don‟t have conscious access to) and b) whether that
unconscious mind can influence our behaviour.
Answer: Murder –
chapter 19 à
Donald killed his wife while under the influence of PCP. He had no memory of the deed- and neither
hypnosis nor sodium amytal served to help him remember. He was placed in a psychiatric hospital. When
on temporary release, he crashed his
bike and sustained severe head injury and severe contusion of both frontal
lobes. He lay in a coma for almost two
weeks and then unexpectedly he started to recover. The murder, lost to memory before, now stood before in
in vivid, almost hallucinatory detail.
a) Based on this story, we can clearly see that we
have an unconscious mind. Through
defense mechanisms, we are able to repress, deny, regress, project, rationalize
etc. Donald repressed his memories in order to avoid painful memories that threatened his daily life.
b) The unconscious mind/unconscious thoughts, impulses, and desires (especially those concerning sex and
aggression) greatly influence our behaviour according to Freud. The unconscious holds repressed memories
and emotions, plus the instinctual drive of the id. The id is
made up of innate biological instincts and urges, is it self-serving, irrational, impulsive and totally
unconscious. It also underlies our efforts to survive, as well as our sexual desires
and pleasure seeking. Thus the unconscious greatly influences our behaviour.
Define two of the following (2 marks each) *remember if you answer all 3 only 1st two will be marked*
-Receptive aphasia pg 65. :
Receptive aphasia, also known as Wernicke‟s aphasia, fluent aphasia, or sensory aphasia, is a type of aphasia
traditionally associated with neurological damage to Wernicke‟s area in the brain, temporal lobe brain area
related to language comprehension. People can hear speak but have difficulty understanding the words.
Opposite of Paul Broca‟s ( not being able to speak but having the comprehension of language
- Eidetic Memory 273-274: commonly referred to as photographic memory, is a medical term, popularly
defined as the ability to recall images, sounds, or objects in memory with extreme precision and in abundant
volume. The word eidetic, referring to extraordinarily detailed and vivid recall not limited to, but especially
of, visual images
Txt definition: the ability to retain a projective mental image long enough to use as source of information
-Neurosyphyllis: is an infection of the brain or spinal cord. It usually occurs in persons who have had
untreated syphilis for many years. Neurosyphilis is caused by Treponema pallidum, the
bacteria that cause syphilis. It usually occurs about 10 - 20 years after a person is first infected with syphilis.
Not everyone who has syphilis will develop this complication. -Sacks ch. 11 cupids disease
Contrast how physicans working under a traditional medical model versus physicaians working under a
Biopsychosocial model would approach “Wiccy Ticcy Ray”. In your answer include a brief description of
Wiccy Ticcy Ray and his problems
Ray suffered from Turrets syndrome. He began taking medication but found that he was unable to do
activities that once brought him joy (such as ping-pong and music) so he wanted to get off the medication.
Instead, Sacks and him came to an agreement that he would take his medication during the week and stay off
his medication on weekends so that he could enjoy his ticks.
this view states that diseases are caused by a combination of biological, psychological and social factors.
Instead of passively getting treatments from a doctor, this model says that you play a role in fostering your
own health. This model makes us understand that medicine works best when doctors help people make sense
of their medical condition to maximize healing.
Medical model: from this perspective, health is an absence of illness and your body is a complex biological
machine that can break down and become ill. Sometime you inflict the damage to yourself through poor life
style choices, and sometimes an external cause causes illness. In either event, the problem is physical and
your mind has little to do with it
Explain how social convoys change as people get older (1 mark). Historically, why did researchers believe
that this change to the social convoy happened (1 mark)? In her Socioemotional Selectivity theory, Laura
Carstensen proposed a very different reason to explain why we see this development change in the social
convoy. What are the two goals upon which SST is based, and how do they change over time (2
marks)? Based on SST-related research, then, how does Laura Carstensen explain age-based changes in the
convoys change as people get older because you add people into your life; friends, family, spouse, co-
workers, etc. From then on, as you grow older the center gets smaller because people
die, lose work, retire, etc. In history, people believed the convoy got smaller because old people don‟t worry
about socialization as they aged and retire/die. The two goals are: emotion regulation and information
seeking. This changes over time because younger adults prioritize emotionally meaningful goals. Age based
changes are because when time perspective is limited, emotionally meaningful goals become more salient
and familiar social partners are preferred. Developmental
changes in the role: robus finding is that younger adults prioritize seeking goals; whereas older adult
prioritize emotionally meaningful goals
Laura theorized that as we grow older, we minimizing groups by choosing who‟s important to us and who is
not. Question 2.2
In the seminar reading about licensing parents, Lykken. Is careful to point out that correlation does not imply
causation. In this instance he is referring to the link between boys being raised without fathers and antisocial
behavior –in other words, not having a father doesn‟t cause you to go out and co