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Lecture 7

PSYC 2P12 Lecture 7: PSYC 2P12- Jan 24.docx


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 2P12
Professor
Cathy Mondloch
Lecture
7

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PSYC 2P12- JAN 24, 2013
ATTACHMENT
-a special bond between two people
- we want to be with that person
- begins during infancy and babies primary caregiver; usually mom
- life long patterns; affect how quickly the child adjusts
- influences cognitive development; good attachment creates a secure base to
explore world
HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
Freud: child is passive; repressed feelings; child has needs and if not met then
they get depressed feelings
Watson: dont spoil the baby; you can have too much mother love and people
caudle their babies
BOWLBY & AINSWORTH
• parents job is to become a secure base: somebody they can count on, you can go off an
explore
•comfort is important in attachment
•volunteer work: most of which he found out his work with children; 2 children who got
him thinking about attachment; adolescent who showed no affection to people and spent
all his time alone, he never had a mother figure; the other child was very anxious and
followed Bowlby everywhere; worked with children between age 1-4 who had a
prolonged separation from their parents (early separation tb sanatorium); we need to stop
looking a repressed memories and start looking at real life events; proposed that children
who experience separation from parents they go through different stages
1. distress: child cry, fuss and cling on
2. despair: push away in anger
3. detachment: affectionless and alone
• the purpose is to maintain proximity to the parent through: sucking, crying, following,
clinging and smiling
AN EVOLUTIONARY PERSPECTIVE
Lorenz: imprinting: geese will imprint on anything they see moving
Harlow: worked with monkey and what happens when they are separated from parent;
interested in what’s critical for the relationship between infant monkeys and mom
Suomi: monkeys became attached to the terry cloth mom who provided comfort
•Attachment is formed when needs are comforted
BUCHAREST EARLY INTERVENTION PROJECT
• studied 2 groups of babies in Romania: 1st group raised in homes and 2nd group raised in
orphanages
• developmental differences between children raised in their homes and those raised in
orphanages
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PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT: institution associated with decreased height, weight, head
circumference
• convinced government to set up foster care; policy of nonintervention if the opportunity
came up for the child to leave the orphanage they were allowed to leave
STAGES OF ATTACHMENT
1. Pre-attachment: 0-3 months
-content and happy with caregivers
- don’t have one person in particular that they want to stay with
- wont show anxiety with being left with somebody else
- trust vs. mistrust is critical
2. Attachment in the making: 4-5 months
- okay with other people
- starting to show some attachment
3. Clear cut attachment: 7-8 months
- attached to the primary caregiver; almost always the mom
- babies show specific attachment to mom
- forms a secure base for exploring with mom; will explore more when
mom is present
- child will spend more and more time away for mom
- separation anxiety: baby gets upset when separated for mom; positive
response when the caregiver returned
- stranger anxiety: comes when interacting with people who are new to
them
- those related to proximity- seeking behaviours
SOCIAL REFERENCING
- the infant looking over at the parent to get an emotional signal as to whether
something good or bad is going to happen
- childrens responses are guided by signals from parents
MEASURING INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES:
a) The strange situation- used to measure attachment; proposed by mary ainseworth
- a structured experiment
- secure attachment: is about how the baby greets mom when she comes back after
she leaves the room
three types of attachment:
1. secure attachment: go out and explore
2. avoidant attachment: infants don’t show an emotional response; look around when
she leaves and when she comes back they don’t greet her
3. anxious- ambivalent attachment: incredibly clingy; don’t explore, even when
mom is in the room; when she comes back after a brief absence they will cling on
to her or even push her away out of anger
• universal on dimensions
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