Class Notes (808,299)
Canada (493,123)
Brock University (11,903)
Psychology (850)
PSYC 2P30 (63)

2P30- feb 5.docx

7 Pages
Unlock Document

Brock University
Gordon Hodson

2P30 February 5 Midterm: 50-70 multiple choice, lecture and textbook material & bring student card Social Comparison - Social comparison Theory (Festinger, 1954) o We learn about our own abilities and attitudes by comparing ourselves to other people o Check Sakai for chart (Olsen et al., 2006)  Question -> social comparison (comparing ourselves to people who are similar in gender, age, income, etc.) -> outcome of social comparison -> conclusion o Upward Social Comparison  Comparing ourselves to people who are better than self on a particular trait or ability, for the point of self improvement  Strategic comparisons o Downward Social Comparison  Comparing ourselves to people who are worse than self on a particular trait of ability, for the point of making ourselves feel better The Self: - Self concept o Identity is:  Independent  Personal, defined by individual traits and goals  Interdependent  Social, defined by connections with others o What matters:  Independent  Me- personal achievement and fulfillment; my rights  Interdependent  We- group goals; our social responsibilities and relationships o Disapproves of:  Interdependent  Conformity  Interdependent  Egotism Self schemas: - Beliefs about the self that organize and guide the processing of self-relevant information - Markus (1977)  1. Schematic: rate self extremely at one pole (e.g. independent); rate as highly important to self-description  1. Schematic: rate self extremely at one pole (e.g. dependent); rate as highly important to self-description  * extremity makes it a schematic personality  3. Aschematic: rate self less important on dimension; rate as unimportant to self description o Markus, Smith & Moreland (1985)  Men schematic vs. aschematic (re or “on”; masculinity)  Watched video behaviour of man in dorm  Part 1: Irrelevant (e.g. eating an apple)  Part 2: masculine (e.g. lifting weights)  Task: press button when you see “meaningful unit of behaviour”  Question: schematics vs. aschematics differ in how they unitize behaviours?  Results:  1. Perceive larger units (of masculine behaviours only)  Follow up study:  2. More flexible, like experts (more able to shit from large to small units when asked) The Working Self Concept - “Schema” implies stable, unchanging self - True, but self can change from one setting to another - Example: make others see themselves as “outgoing” o As for e.g.s of their past outgoing behaviours o One-sided question: “are you extraverted?”  When specifically asked, people are more generally open to admitting extraversion (opposed to “are you introverted?”)  The way you frame the question will shift the way you answer o Tell them outgoing people are more likely to succeed in life (i.e., make it a desirable trait) - Self knowledge is rich and complex - Working self concept: the self at any given moment - Stability: enduring self knowledge - Malleability: different elements of self knowledge are activated on different occasions Self-Serving Biases - The tendency to perceive oneself favourably o Explanations for Positive and Negative Events  We take credit for successes, and attribute failures to external causes (fundamental attribution error)  We do this for our groups as well (ultimate attribution error) o Better-than-average Effect  We typically see ourselves as better than the average  Especially when comparing to people in general (vs. specific individuals)  Various studies:  90% of business managers rate their performance above that of their average peer, in reality, 90% cannot be above average... only 50% can be  most drivers (even those in accidents) believe themselves better than average driver  see ourselves as more intelligent, better looking, less prejudiced than others  most adults perceive that they support their aging parents to a greater extent than their siblings do  see ourselves as healthier than other people, on average; less likely to be persuaded by commercials  94% of US profs rate themselves as better than the average US prof o False Consensus:  The tendency to overestimate the consensus for personal attitudes and behaviours  We generalize opinions; if you would do something, you would assume that other people would do it as well o Generalize from a small sample (e.g. sample: me) o We tend to hang around with people who are similar to us, so if you’re thinking about the people you know, or who you’re close to, the general opinion would be similar to your own; makes you feel like you have a closer opinion to the public than you really do o We’re often motivated by wanting to follow the norms; we want our opinions to be shared with the public o Cognitive bias: the easier it is to come to mind, you more likely you think it’s true  It’s easier to think of people who would share your opinion that it is to think of those that would disagree  Hodson, Dovidio & Gaertner (unpub)  “Do you consider yourself to be biased against Blacks?” o 90.2% white people say no  Yes: Other whites (74.17%); Blacks (77.08%)  No: Other whites (41.96%); Blacks (44.01%)  MacInnis & Hodson (in press)  The more that you acknowledge that you’re biased
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 2P30

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.