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Lecture 4

SCIE 1P50 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Cerium, Wind Turbine, Erbium

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Caroline Starrs

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SCIENCE 1P50 September 29th, 2016.
Lecture 4
- Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (YouTube video)
- Buy standards from chemical companies to compare compounds
Long Range Transport of Air Pollutants LRTAP
- graphic on slide
- get into water, water evaporates
- volatile – goes from liquid phase to gas phase really easily
- arsenic and mercury put on in China; gets to someplace like India and grasshops
to other distant countries
- most pollutants are global in scale
Stockholm Convention (Stockholm, 2001)
- International agreement about what we should be doing w/ a lot of these
- Agreement to eliminate the production of certain Persistent Organic Pollutants
- Phase out (obviously can’t stop immediately) production and use of intentionally
produced POPs
- Reduce and, where feasible, eliminate releases of unintentionally produced
POPs (unintentionally produced through combustion, etc)
- Interventions to stop them from unintentionally being produced (costly); can’t stop
all production from consumption but try to
- Mechanisms in place to clean up old stockpiles and remediate (i.e., seal up,
create barrier to keep POP from getting into environment) equipment containing
POPs; chemicals used in various industrial processes (i.e., equipment,
- Help the transition to safer alternatives
- Identify other POPs for inclusion
- > 156 countries signed the agreement to date
- PCBs  decided to stop production of them immediately
* doesn’t suddenly go away, but it becomes illegal to manufacture them in
countries that have signed Convention
- Stop using PCB laden equipment by 2025
- Facilitate environmentally correct disposal of PCB wastes as soon as possible
and not later than 2028
- Contaminated equipment sent to underdeveloped countries
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Non-Renewable Resources
- Hard to talk about sustainability when we’re talking about something that’s non-
renewable; problematic
- Diminishing return
-Reserves – known quantities of material that can be economically recovered
from the environment
* can change depending on what technology you have
-Resources – undiscovered/may know where they are, but thought to exist
* resources can turn into reserves if technology becomes available/gain access
to where they are and do a survey
Non-Renewable Resources: Metallic Resources
- Metals – elements
- Aluminum, Copper, Cobalt, Chromium, Iron, Lead, Manganese, Mercury, Nickel,
Sb (?), Tin, Uranium, Zinc
- Gold and Silver  precious metals
- Canada has these in abundance; one of the world’s top leaders for production
and reserve of these
- Ores – mixtures of elements
- Typically extracted and processed to obtain certain elements such as metals
- Non-metallic minerals and elements
- P, limestone, gems, etc.,
- resource extraction
- enabled highly developed nations to become industrialized
- 75 metal & 1137 non-metal mines in Canada
- have developed more environmentally friendly techniques, techniques safer for
miners in Canada
- 2014: Forest, Minerals & Metals and Energy = 53% of our exports
- 2014 production: #1 for Potash, #2 for Uranium, #2 for Niobium, etc.,
Extracting Metals/Minerals
locate deposit
analyze composition; might not be economically viable to go after it if its coming
with other things
mine for metals/minerals: many different ways
process metal/minerals  depends on what is coming along for the ride
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