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Brock University
Jane Helleiner

September 11 , 2012 SOCI 1P80 INTRODUCTION Anthropology- the study of humanity including prehistoric origins and contemporary human diversity. 4 Major Fields a) Biological anthropology- human evolution and other animals b) Archeology- past cultures based on remains c) Linguistic anthropology- human communication, origin, history, relationships and change in human language d) Cultural anthropology- contemporary human culture and social life - Living people and culture in which they live CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY -Find cultural similarities and differences -Decenter own cultural practices and understandings make the strange familiar and the familiar strange (Spiro, 90) th th -Became a scholarly discipline in late 19 c./early 20 c. -Wider contest of Euro/US colonialism Rejected cultural evolutionism - Bronislaw Malinowski (1884-1942) favoured holism and functionalism - Franz Boas (1858-1942) introduced idea of cultural relativism (now a global discipline) -Concept of Culture peoples learned and shared behavior and beliefs (pg 4) - not the same as nature. Even natural functions (eating, eliminating etc.) are culturally variable - culture is based on symbols (ex. alphabet, sounds) - culture is learned - cultures are integrated * not static, bounded or internally homogeneous * th September 11 , 2012 SOCI 1P80 INTRODUCTION PAGE 19 Models of Cultural Interactions Clash of civilizations= conflict model McDonaldization= take over and homogenization model Hybridization= blending model Localization= local culture remaking and transforming of global culture - Multiple Cultural Worlds - Internal cultural differentiation structured by class, race, ethnicity, indigeneity, gender, age, region, institutions Ethnocentrism vs Cultural Relativity Absolute vs Critical Cultural Relativism -anything is acceptable - ask questions about cultural practices and internal differentiation -Attempt to understand complexity of human cultures -Reject cultural essentialism Thats just their culture Culture is the question and not the answer SECOND LECTURE 1. CULTURE and ECONOMIES - Economic system o Production (making of goods and money), consumption and exchange - Theory of cultural materialism (pg 27) argues that economy shapes society and culture o Eg. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels Mode of production= infrastructureSeptember 11 , 2012 SOCI 1P80 INTRODUCTION Kinship, politics etc.= structure Ideas, values and beliefs= superstructure o Limits typologies (modes of production can co-exist) - I. Wallerstein believed in o Emerging world economy in 16 century th o Global world economy by 19 century 2. Modes of Production a. Foraging - Hunting, fishing, gathering of wild foods - A form of food collection but not food production - Dominant for 90%+ of human history but by 1900, only about 0.001% of humanity relied on it, and its the primary mode for approximately 250 000 people today (usually the secondary mode) - Those pure foragers are now often pushed to marginal areas - Extensive strategy required- also requires sophisticated knowledge/specialized tools for different environments - Division of labour o Gender & age o Myth of man the hunter and woman the gatherer - Property relations (use rights -> recognize priority of access to territory and resourc
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