SOCI 1P01 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Essentialism, Infant Mortality, Publication Bias

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28 Jan 2013
Lecture 4 notes
Aspects of socialization:
Primary socialization:
Rene Spitz study:
-did a study in an orphanage
-children have minimum human contact
-results during primary socializationthey don’t rely on others, they become distant and remote and
-has physical consequences
-the link b/w mind and body is a fact-ex. if people who are sick believe that they are going to get better,
very often they do get better
-reason why faith healing works
-more infection, higher death rates, slower maturation, possibility of impaired sexual functioning upon
-have profound effect on intimate human contact later in life
-primary socialization begins at birth by parents who pass on cultural knowledge
-siblings can also play a part
-Spitz-primary socialization important for emotional adjustment later in life
-if child is socially handicapped, there is usually violence at home
-therefore, they tend to use violence in adulthood as a response to violence during socialization
-children who are praised, encouraged, and complimented are more likely to be adjusted than those who are put
downdestroys self esteem
-educational theorists say you should give students an A or they will lose self-esteemself-esteem movement
-should not insulate children from failure b/c it is a fact of life
-when does primary socialization end?
-parental influence begins to decrease once children enter school (but still continues to a lesser extent)
-children were expected to conform to adult norms
-child labour-work at 5, full time by 10, marriage by 16
-childhood is a new idea
-children in the past were mini-adults and expected to be capable of behaving like adults
-when that didn’t happen children were punished harshly
-modern view is differentchildren are incapable of behaving like adults
PIAGE-theory of socialization
-says children cannot behave like adults
-harsh punishment of children today is discouraged
-ideas of adolescence are also new terms
-in traditional societies when you became physically mature, you married
-b/c lifespan wasn’t long in those societies
Secondary socialization:
-child has other influences in life
-begins w/ school
-different ways of thinking are introduced
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-“kiddy culture”the kids have their own culture which is very sexist therefore cannot rid the sexual stereotyping
b/c they pick up sexist attitude from kiddy culture
-its important and trumps and neutralizes the impact of parents
-ex. of secondary socialization part time job
-ex. Mcjobsjobs w/ low pay, low security, no fringe benefits
-ex. full time jobs
-ex. becoming a parent/grandparent (as you age people expect you to act like an old person)
-gerontology is the study of old age
-secondary socialization as adult socialization:
-Lynddie Englandpart of the military and convicted of torturing prisoners in Abugrab
-adult roles are often discontinuous
-children expected to be submissive
-as you become an adult, you are expected to become more assertive which is key to becoming successful
-their roles are not visible and are unpredictable
-Anticipatory socialization: people think about their future and begin preparing for them and so they anticipate
what it would be like to be in those roles
Flexible self:
-people’s identities change faster today
-due to factors such as globalization and technological innovations
-when exposed to cultural aspects, people are constantly modifying themselves
Agents of socialization (significant others):
-family-mastering basic skills
-school-critical for secondary socialization
Conflict theorists-suggest school have a hidden curriculum that teaches children how to behave in society after
they graduate
-visible curriculumread information, learn it, be tested on it
-must have discipline and motivation
-reason why employers like people who have university degrees
-siblings, parents, teachers
-if a teacher treats students w/ respect and as if they are smart, students will respond that way
-Thomas theorem: situations we define as real become real in their consequences
-peers, peer groups, religion, sports teams
-peer groups: critical, made up of individuals of the same age, similar status (recognized position in society)
-will acquire peer groups as they go through life
-help children and adolescents separate from families and become independent
-sports teams: it teaches you to subordinate (place at a lower level) your personal self interest for the group
-it allows you to commit yourself to some super-ordinate goal (a goal larger than yourself, above
individual’s interest)
-commit yourself to a group goal, to society etc.
-the mass media: can reach millions of people in an instant, its global
Marshall McLuhanglobal village=the world of today passes information around at the same rate as the old
traditional village
-modern media had turned the world into a global village
-mass media creates pop culture=COCA colonizationthe spread of American popular culture around the world
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