Psychology is the study of behavior and experience.
Unit of analysis
Clinical psychologists have Ph.D.s
Psychologists specialize in psychiatry
Neurotic psychotic (have disorders that are severe enough that interfere with the
normal functions of living (have friends, job, fall in love, raise children))
Psychotics cannot do that because they scare most of us because they see things that
no one else sees or hears. They say weird things, often end up being
institutionalized. Can use drugs to minimize the violent tendencies.
Neurotics are people who suffer from one or more neurosis. Tend to be anxiety and
When a psychotic gets depressed they dont do things for days, neurotics are treated
best by clinical psychologists.
II. What Psychologists Study
a. Physiological psychologists
a. Study things like if you are a mathmatican could you do the same
problems at 90 that you could do at 30? Focus on changes over
b. Physical changes: bigger taller, adolescents, adulthood bones
start to compress
c. Moral changes: take a kid tell him a story, wife 2 kids then guy lost
his job and trying to get a job no money coming in, they would go
to store and buy food, still couldnt find a job, running out of
money, he ran out of money went to store and bought food and ha
no money, that night he got up and went down to bakery and stole
bread and brought it home to feed his kids. Kid says stealing is
wrong you cant do that, stealing to kids is black and white, college
student would say that hes sorry for breaking the bakery and stealing is wrong, but he needed to feed his kids so its not wrong
D. Experimental and Cognitive
a. Concerned with very basic physiological processes, that allow us
to learn, remember, and later use information to pursue various
b. Sensations, perceptions, learning, memory, motivation, thinking,
problem solving, decision making
E. Educational and School
a. Principles of psychological functioning within a educational
b. Designing curriculum you have to figure out math, how to teach
them, what subjects, in what order, in what order, how often to
c. Middle school: 3 six grade math classes, one option is to take one
third of the six graders that is least capable put them in on class,
but the other third in a higher one, put the others in a middle level,
its called tracking, and then teachers love this because they know
what they can teach to certain children. If the lower level kids start
to think of themselves as bad at math then they will stop trying at
math and school and eventually drop out.
d. What to do with kids that are very smart or average, but confined
to a wheel chair, blind, deaf, used to be just put them in a room
down the hall, now they put them in a normal class and make
some accommodations. What to do with people who are so much
smarter than everyone else that information becomes boring to
a. Specialize in the principles of psychological functioning in the
b. Job satisfaction leads to increased productivity, if you like your job
you will work harder, more productive employee and the company
will make more profits, if not you wont work as hard, less
productive and less money for the company.
c. It is to the companies benefit to design jobs that are most
satisfying to people, then they will produce more profits.
d. Not much evidence that links these two.
e. Job satisfaction leads to less absences, leads to fewer strikes, less
f. A lot with personnel selection, some people are motivated others
less so, find the most smartest and motivated people and hire
g. All of us would be good at some jobs and less good at other jobs.
h. Identify the unique skills, interests, tenandances, and matching
them with jobs that are unique to them.i. Being able to predict which people would be good at which job.
Hiring is very expensive.
j. Organizational vertically like a pyramid. horizontal structure. A
psych would examine which businesses are best suited for which
structure. Which one would be most efficient, people for
k. They also look at the personal level.
a. Specialize in units of analysis that are greater than 1. Dyad. Wants
to understand a couple, marriage, social interactions. Marriage
cant only study guy or girl but the unit and dynamics between
them goals, conflict.
b. Roommates, friends, marriages, small groups. Small group is
defined as a group of people who know each other very well. Each
person respects each other to differing degrees. The social
interactions between each member.
c. Large groups large enough that each individual does not know
each other very well at all.
d. Cultural issues, sub-cultures, cultural relations confusion. Inter
e. Study things that require more than one person.