TREN Lecture -Tourism in an Era of Global Change

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TREN Lecture Jan.31 & Feb. 7
Tourism in an Era of Global Change
Tourism and global environmental change
Tourism health and safely
Tourism and water
Case Cruiseline Tourism
Tourism and Global Environmental Change
Atmosphere is the thin layer of gases surrounding Earth
Nitrogen 78%, Oxygen 21%, Other gases 1%
Most ozone O3 is located in the stratosphere
Ozone absorbs and scatters UV radiation **
It protects all life from tissue damage (genetic mutation)
the cause of ozone reduction:
CFC-11 and CFC-12, refrigerants which are non-reactive and non-toxic
this means they persist in the atmosphere
UV rays fragment CFC gas into chlorine atoms which destroy ozone
molecules
70% of radiation is absorbed by the plant‟s surface and the atmosphere
the rest reflected back to space
Land and water absorb heat, making the earth‟s surface warmer than higher altitudes
…. Creating air currents
Weather: Atmospheric conditions over short periods of time and space
Climate: atmospheric conditions across large areas and over long periods of time
The Greenhouse Effect
the atmosphere contains GHGs which absorb heat, and warm the atmosphere
this is a good thing!
N and O2 are not GHGs
CO2, water vapour and methane are
without the greenhouse effect, we would freeze
However,
As GHGs accumulate, they increase radiation reflected back to the surface
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Longer Wavelengths Reflected Back and Trapped
more buring of fossil fuels the more production of CO2 (and other GHGs)
Greater greenhouse effect
--< more heat trapped near surface of earth
High temperatures
Greater variability (highs, lows, extremes, etc.)
global warming is only 1 aspect of global climate change
it is the warming of the earth‟s average surface temperature
Fossil fuel consumption and deforestation the big culprits
Climate change comes from:
changes in sun‟s output
Volcanic eruptions (aerosols)
Earth‟s orbit
The greenhouse effect (warming of the atmosphere, chiefly CO2)
Continuing Modest Economic Growth is Predicted to:
Create a 60% growth in global energy demand
Lead to a 52% increase in GHG emissions by 2030
13% world total energy currently comes form renewable
by 2050, tourism‟s contribution to greenhouse gas emissions: 3% to 7%
Air Pollution
Human Causes:
> CO
> SOx
> NOx
> Particulate Matter (dust, soot)
> Lead (gasoline)
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> Since the Clean Air Act of 1970, these 5 have declined by 54%
Natural Causes
> dust and sand from wind
> volcanic eruptions, particulate matter and sulfur dioxide
Acid Rain (and snow)
contamination of rain which chemicals that makes it more acidic, for example:
SO2 + H2O -------- H2SO4
NOx + H2O HNO3 (nitric acid)
Main sources of SO2
> fossil fuels, especially coal (e.g. coal-fired generating plants)
> processing of metal ores (e.g. Sudbury)
Main sources of NOx :
> petroleum, cars and trucks
greatest surface problems NOT in areas of greatest emissions
Dry fallout is mainly local, but ….
Air masses are mobile, pollution stays for 2-4days, can move 1000km or
more, cross international boundaries
But: contaminants do NOT dilute…just go farther before touching ground
Ohio valley super-stack emissions pollute Ontario, Sudbury super-stack emissions
pollute US
each country blames the other
What are the Implications of acid rain for tourism?
stone sculptures and buildings are being damaged
Acidic gas dissolves in the clouds to fall, many miles from where it was produced, as
acid rain
increases the acidity of lakes killing many of the species living there
Climate Change and its effects on Montevarde’s Golden Toad
July 1986 to July 1987 was driest on record
Breeding pools dried up
Drying started in 1973
Amphibians breathe and absorb moisture through their skins
Also susceptible to high temperature, acid rain, and pollution
Scientists found that Monteverde‟s cloud forest was becoming drier
As ocean temp rises, clouds pass over at higher elevation
Clouds no longer in contact with trees
Golden toad endemic to the area; become extinct
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