WGST 1F90 October 24, 2013
Reminders/Module 1 Response:
- November 7: Quiz
- Teaching assistants will be reviewing in seminar how to properly complete a Scantron form. Pay attention.
- Failure to properly or fully complete the form will result in a zero. Page |
- For the quiz
- Lecture and reading material.
MODULE 1 Response:
- Question 1 – negative stereotypes…history of women’s movement (the 3 waves)
- Question 2 – How our ideas of gender construction have formed and merged contemporary beliefs of
masculinity and femininity.
Commandments of Mars
Four Axioms of Masculinity
1. Gender and sex are not the same.
2. Not innate or natural.
3. Gender is not socially constructed; meaning it is not the same over the world or throughout history.
4. Dependent upon: economies, power structures, government policies, historical moments, religion.
5. Gender is important: part of our self-identity. How we see ourselves.
1. We “do” or gender – gender is a performance.
2. We are always ‘doing’ gender; perform for an audience who evaluates our gender performance. Element of
3. We too evaluate others’ gender. 4. Scripts are provided to us by: family, peers, media, religion, education system, medical profession.
5. We do have agency – do not have to accept all the ideals/images about gender.
Binary: Page |
1. We have divided masculinity and femininity into two unequal categories in the West.
2. If one is a man, one cannot be a woman. (Not true).
3. Culturally, we value these differently; traits, qualities, behaviours associated with femininity and masculinity are
not valued the same.
4. Example: we value independence, strength over interdependence and weakness.
5. We have also allotted qualities to gender.
6. Example: boys are naturally aggressive, girls are naturally nurturing.
- DO NOT USE SOCIETY IN YOUR WRITING…PUT THE BLAME ON SOMEBODY PARTICULARY.
Making Boys into Men:
1. Western masculinity is based heavily upon notions from ancient codes and mythology.
2. Masculinity, or manhood, is symbolized by the astrological symbol which represents mars, the ancient god of war.
3. The essence of masculine ideal is that of the warrior image – the ultimate in manliness.
Commandments of Mars:
1. Dominate and control: people, objects, events, environment.
2. Succeed at any cost: never admit defeat or failure; work/sports, etc.
3. Control emotions and avoid strong feelings: maintain control over emotions.
4. Distance: from other people and self.
5. Never be weak/needy: distrust neediness in other people.
6. Fight the female inside and the outside.
7. Protect own image/ego: guard against outside forces. Axioms of Masculinity:
1. The rules of masculinity vary according to culture and over time; masculinity also varies within culture by class,
race, ethnicity and age.
2. Speak of multiple masculinities yet some elements define the dominant form of masculinity.
3. Referred to as ‘hegemonic masculinity’ – hegemonic femininity does not exist.
Four Axioms of Masculinity
Social psychologists Robert Brannon and Deborah David (1976) have summarized the rules of masculinity into four
1. No Sissy Stuff: reject any of the characteristics associated with femininity (flight from feminine). One’s own
behavior or another man’s; reject vulnerability; avoid being too close to another man.
2. The Big Wheel: a quest/desire for wealth/fame/success/marker of achievement and/or importance
3. The Sturdy Oak: the aura of confidence, reliability, unshakeable strength and toughness; independent.
4. Give ‘em hell: enjoyment of aggression; expressing aggression violence and daring.
Take the Axioms and Commandments and add boys....
1. Themes underlie prescribed behavior for men and boys.
2. Begin early in life; powerful tools of socialization.
3. Have not changed a great deal in the 20 century.
4. “The” criteria of masculinity due to mass media, movies, etc. where such archetypes are drawn upon.
5. Underscore the notion of hegemonic masculinity.
6. Hegemonic masculinity is based upon power—power over self, others, emotions, environment, the world.
VIDEO EXCERPT: Tough Guise: Violence, Media and the Crisis in Masculinity by Jackson Katz (Directed by Sut Jhully).
- Tough Guise: to gain respect from people through violence
- Independent - Powerful
- Scares people
- A stud
If you’re not “just one of the guys”…if you’re not “a man” 4
- Mama’s boy
- Connection be