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Lecture 7

Lecture 7 _ Industrial City.docx

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Department
Architecture Urban
Course
ARCU 3100
Professor
Yves Gosselin
Semester
Winter

Description
Lecture 7 – Industrial City/Haussmann March 5 2013 th Final assignment – due April 9 2013 Industrial Revolution • Industrial city comes about during the Industiral Revolution th • End of 18 century – fundamental changes to society • Unlike Renaissance which changed how people thought, what was siginificant abot the Industrial Revolution was initially scientific discoveries that had an impact on production on goods and how economy worked • The first step began in Great Britain – were expanding empire • They had the power/money to translate the application of the technologies from the Indutrial Revolution – contributeds to production o Paralleled by Urbanization • One hand – there are changes and improvements in agricultural production • Other hand – shift of dependence on crop shares to agricultural being done in a more independent manner; people are being forced off the land into cities London’s Growth • In less than 100 years, the population goes from 864 845 to 4 232 118 • This is the firs ttime since Rome that a city breaches the 1 000 000 population • London isn’t the only city – there’s 30 cities by 1895 with populations over 1 000 000 • Such a significant change in society results in people for and against the industrial revolution For and Against • Capitalists see this revolution as a great opportunity – was a great leap forward in terms of capitalism • Those against – the working class that was forced off the land and forced into worker factory positions will suffer significantly through these terms and conditions • Privileged/wealty class – don’t’ really need the money from the industrial revolution and have a view of what life should be • Small bourgeoisie – those working in small businesses that will see themselves being left behind through the emphasis on industrial production to the economy Gustave Doré – views of English industrial society • Was a French artist that did a series of the hardships from the Industiral Revolution • Industrial Revolution – shows the polarization of the wealthy and the very poor High Street, Glasgow – 1878 • Other element emerging – photography • Rise of photograpy in the ise of the Indsutiral Revolution Living Conditions • High density, overcrowded dwellings • Problems of health, disease (cholera), etc Industrial Changes • Inventions and use of steam power then allows engines and mechanisms to be built during industrial production beyond human power • Growing mechanization replaces more artisanal creation – i.e. cotton jenney • British had advantage to being imperial/colonial – many of the materials that came in were from the colonies they controlled o They also forced these countries to buy back the manufactured goods • This boom of economic activity needed investors – i.e. for production o Formalization of capitalism o Large banks emerge to channel money into production Factories appearing in the outskirts of the city • Use of coal – stimulates all other producton – i.e. mining Physical Impacts on the City • Level of production was significantly higher than the past • Introduction of railways – for both passengers/goods • Central Business District also emerging; where stock exchanges, and institutions emerge • Need for new residential areas – beginning of segregation between social classes Hamburg, Germany • Germany became part of the ruhr area (industrial heartland) • Hamburg will benefit from this • Water wil become an integral aprt of the cityscape in terms of trying to move goods in and out (i.e. canals) This transformation also saw the emergence of social critics and reformers • Fall into two groups: the non-empiricists/empiricists • The empiricists want to use science to solve problems • The other side includes sociologists/others who are against the impacts of rapid industrialization/urbanization ReformersL the Pre-Urbanists • Trying to figure out physical ways to organize society that puts into place living conditions that will be advantageous to the worker while providing the means of production and harnessing the power of the industrial revolution • They accept the industrial revolution as progress of societies – they focus on developing communities that are beneficial to everyone Robert Owen – Harmony, India • Develops idea of an ideal community • It never got built, but his ideas are significant in these ideas Charles Fourier – Phalanstere • Another ideal community • Gets built • Idea that communal facilities/apartments that are decent/ schools would be available Saltaire, UK • Industrialists will take the attitude and approach that it’s better to take care of your workers rather than let them be affected by poor health/insalubrious conditions • Sir Titus Salt – builds a community named ‘Saltaire’ o Now is more like a museum o Salt had an industry at the time o Also had series of textile mill o Better living conditions than those of major cities Reformers: the Pre-Urbanists • They advocated a different approach • Ruskin – critic of art; Morris – architecturally trained and developed style • They both adovacated a return to more a gothic and artisan-based approach th • Were carpenters of the arts and crafts movement developing into the 19 century • Was a romantic idealization of the medieval city • Both were prolific writers • Morris put Ruskin’s theories into practice • Supported the neo-gothic Reformers: Karl Marx and Frederic Engels • Wrote the communist manifesto • They were instrumental in having a significant influence on sociology in their use of statistics, ability to acquire statistics, analyze them and forumatle solutions for better living conditions The Reformers: the Urbanists/Planners • Arturo Sory Y Mata nad Tony Garnier • Both cases – accepted the industrial means of production and they wanted to plan communities that would be responsive to both the needs of the industiralists and also provide healthy living environments Cuidad Lineal, Spain • By Arturo Soria Y Mata • City is linear in fashion • Iea that you can benefit from rail transportation for workers/goods • Not built but had significant impact on ideal communities Cité Industrielle • Is a comprehensive document • by Garnier • is a solution to the industrial city – deals with rail and adjacency of water/canal movement • proposes a more comprehensive series of land uses (i.e. institutions, schools, etc) • he’s significant because he also imposes physical zoning – tries ot split up adjacencies to minimize negative impacts of industry o beginning of zoning Tony Garnier and the Cité Indsutrielle Town Centre • beginnings of modernism in the architecture proposed in a time of gothic revival, ornamented styles Industiral Plants Art School • more modernized – simplification stressed on façade design Primary School View of Higher density residential Area Garnier’s Influence th • influences significant 20 century architects – i.e. LeCorbusier, Gropius, Rietveld, etc The Cultural Model • an example of this being applied ot architecture/urbanism is form Camillo Sitte, who wrote a book (city building based on artistic principles) based on surveys that advoacate an approach that beautifies the city • architects/urban planners responsible for this • will facilitate good economic activity • formulates squares/piazzas and tries to explain its quality der Stradtebau (the City based on artistic principles) • publication will be translated into many languages Ebenezer Howard and the Garden City Movement • will have a significant impact on European and North American influence • contributes to suburbia • book ‘Garden Cities of Tomorrow’ – presets theory/ approach that combines the best aspects of the city with the best aspects of the countryside • advocates a diversion of growth from the normal concentric growth of city to one in which new towns/ garden cities are built at a certain distance which are separated form the industrial working area • rail system used to connect everything • Talks about three magnets – town, country, town-country One of Howards Diagrams – city with defiend suburbs and satellite towns Network of Garden Cities around a central city linked by rail Howard – Unwin • Raymond Unwin is the architect planner who puts Howard’s theories into practice • Teams up with Parker • Puts all the planning principles into Hampstead Garden Suburb • His book identifies relationships between roads and paths, etc and how they’re related to one another • Letchworth – garden city that is actually built Letchwroth Garden City • Many separations between vehicle and pedestrian movement Henry Sellier • Gardne city movement influenced Sellier • He did a number of projects duringhte early 20 century Vienna, Ringstrasse • Also see significant change to existing cities • One is in Vienna- this is by the desire of major cities to beautify • Major redevelopemtn is done to provide this stately presence • The dark is ‘Ringstrasse’ which is where the battlements existed in history – will become the site of the wealthy Idelfons Cerda • Another example was in Barcelona • Barcelona, in the 19 century, was the historic capital of Catalona (different cultural group from the rest of Spain) o Catalans value their independence • Indsutry can’t really establish itself in the form – has two forts on either side • Cerda wins the competition for the redesign – image shows how it expanded • He essentially proposes a grid as an extension – Barcelona eventally expands northwards • He supports a scientific approach for the implementation of the city o Comes up with ideal block pattern o Will also study various types of intersection design and the movement around these Cerda Plan • Blocks can be opened up – modules can be used in a creative fashion • The speculative builders will not self-regulate – emphasis on maximum build-out of blocks Comparisons to Venice and Florence Paris- Barcelona • Haussmann’s approach is different – different problems Haussmann’s Paris Haussmann’s Paris will be extremely influenceital in city planning • the ambitions of Napoleon III was to modernize • London was the model • Desire by Napoleon III to emulate Paris to the same level – resulted in the work that went beyond expectations and became a model for much of the thinking f the late 19 and early 20 century o Influenced City Beautiful in North America The Paris of 1848 • Paris is number one at the world at the time for manufacturing • Has join stock banks like London •
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