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BIOL 1003
Elizabeth Nisbet

Beta Blockers Against High Blood Pressure  Prolonged, high blood pressure → hypertension, risk factor of CHD (coronary heart disease)!  Risk factors associated with hypertension are stress, obesity, smoking, high intake of NaCl and alcohol  Smooth muscle in artery wall thickens → narrows lumen of the artery → heart must beat faster → contracts with greater force than normal o Increased risk of thrombosis and atheroma (fatty deposits form in artery walls) o β-receptors found on plasma membrane of smooth muscle cells in arteries, arterioles and heart o β-agonists are chemical messengers that fit into and stimulate β-receptors / muscle cells in the walls of arteries relax (increases size of lumen) o β-blockers are antagonists of β-agonists / block β-receptors on surface of muscle cells in arteries and heart due to their similar shape / β-agonist cannot bind anymore / reduces hypertension  [EXAM] β-blocker binds to receptor / receptor on heart (muscle cells) / adrenaline cannot bind / blood pressure falls because heart rate reduced/force of contraction reduced Antibiotics  Produced as natural secretions by bacterial or fungal cells o Bacteria and fungi are secondary metabolites (produce antibiotics during a late stage of their life cycle) o Antibiotics inhibit growth of natural competitors o Gives antibiotic-secreting population an advantage in colonising it  Antibiotics harm pathogenic bacteria by o Bacteriostatic antibiotics that are slowing down their growth rate o Bactericidal antibiotics that kill pathogenic bacteria (in correct concentration)  Narrow-spectrum antibiotics (e.g. penicillin) are only effective on a few pathogens  Wide-spectrum antibiotics (e.g. chloramphenicol) are effective on many pathogens  Prevent formation of bacterial cell walls o Bacteria occupy a solution with a more negative water potential than their own cytoplasm o Without the cell wall, bacteria are exposed to this hostile environment o As a result, bacteria will swell, burst and die o > Review the principles of water potential  Prevent formation of bacterial proteins o By inhibiting DNA transcription or mRNA translation o Bacteria are unable to synthesise proteins → affects the metabolism of bacteria  NOTE: Antibiotics do not affect viruses Monoclonal an
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