Using living organisms and their products for commercial purposes. 500 bce: first antibiotic to treat boils. 1797: edward jenner create the vaccination for cowpox. 1859: charles darwin published theory of evolution by natural selection. 1865: gregor mendel discovered laws of inheritance with his pea experiments. 1994: human genome project is launched: maps all the genes in the human genome. Identify the major scientific discoveries that lead to recombinant dna technology. List and describe different types of biotechnology and their applications. Microbial: manipulating microorganisms such as yeast and bacteria. Agricultural: animals: research, proteins and cloning, plant: genetically engineered and pest resistant plants. Environmental: green technology: bioremediation: use of biotech to degrade a variety of natural and manmade substances, particularly those contributing to pollution. Medical: treatment, preventative medicine, stem cell research. Identify pros and cons in biotechnologies and some controversial issues in the field.