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Lecture 2

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Carleton University
BIOL 1902
Michael Runtz

WEEK 2 TERMS AND EXAMPLES When camouflage and cryptic behaviour fails, some animals have a second defence or “Plan B”: Startle Patterns: Bright colours and patterns that when exposed startle the predator giving time for the animal to escape. Examples: Bright yellow on inside of legs of Gray Tree Frog Bright hind wings of Band-winged Grasshoppers Bright hind wings of Underwing Moths Eye-spots on Sphinx Moth hind wings Huge eye-spots on Io Moth and Polyphemus Moth hind wings Startle Sounds: Beaver tail slap Distraction Patterns: Patterns that serve to distract or deflect a predator’s attention to a non-vital body part. These are often but not always startle patterns also. Deflection Patterns: another name for Distraction Patterns that also serve this function. Some small butterflies have eye-spots and fake antennae on hind wings that serve as Distraction or Deflection Patterns Examples: Hairstreak Butterflies, also Swallowtail Butterflies; Five-lined Skink blue tail serves as to Distract and Deflect Permanent eyespots (never hidden) can be used to fool a predator into thinking the animal is bigger than it really is. Example: Eyed Elater (beetle), Tiger Swallowtail caterpillar Disguise through Behaviour: some animals add bits of environment to body to disguise: Masquerade artists: Examples: Leaf Rollers, Caddisfly larvae, Sumac Gall Aphids PHYSICAL DEFENCE can involve hard physical structures that are part of the animal’s body: Hard exoskeleton: Examples: many beetles, millipedes Shells formed from internal skeleton: Examples: Turtles: Blanding’s Turtle can partially close its shell, Hard shells formed from Calcium: Examples: Snails, Clams ANIMAL PHYSICAL DEFENCES INCLUDE: A) SILK WEBS FOR PROTECTION: EASTERN TENT CATERPILLAR, FALL WEBWORM B) LONG BODY HAIRS: MANY CATERPILLARS: GYPSY MOTH, WOOLLY BEAR C) BODY HAIR (GUARD HAIRS) MODIFIED INTO QUILLS: PORCUPINE ANIMAL CHEMICAL DEFENCES POISON SPINES: HAIRS THAT ARE BRANCHED AND TIPPED WITH TOXINS: I.E., IO MOTH CATERPILLAR, (SPINY OAK SLUG) USUALLY APOSEMATIC COLORATION = BRIGHT WARNING COLORATION IS INVOLVED TOXINS CAN HAVE BAD TASTE, MAKE THE EATER ILL, BURN, ETC. CHEMICAL DEFENCES ARE FOUND IN OR RELEASED BY A VARIETY OF BODY PARTS: A) SKIN: RED EFT (SALAMANDER) (SAMANDAR
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