WEEK 2 TERMS AND EXAMPLES
When camouflage and cryptic behaviour fails, some animals have a second defence or “Plan B”:
Startle Patterns: Bright colours and patterns that when exposed startle the predator giving time for the
animal to escape.
Examples: Bright yellow on inside of legs of Gray Tree Frog
Bright hind wings of Band-winged Grasshoppers
Bright hind wings of Underwing Moths
Eye-spots on Sphinx Moth hind wings
Huge eye-spots on Io Moth and Polyphemus Moth hind wings
Startle Sounds: Beaver tail slap
Distraction Patterns: Patterns that serve to distract or deflect a predator’s attention to a non-vital body
part. These are often but not
always startle patterns also.
Deflection Patterns: another name for Distraction Patterns that also serve this function.
Some small butterflies have eye-spots and fake antennae on hind wings that serve as Distraction or
Examples: Hairstreak Butterflies, also Swallowtail Butterflies; Five-lined Skink blue tail serves as to
Distract and Deflect
Permanent eyespots (never hidden) can be used to fool a predator into thinking the animal is bigger than
it really is.
Example: Eyed Elater (beetle), Tiger Swallowtail caterpillar
Disguise through Behaviour: some animals add bits of environment to body to disguise:
Masquerade artists: Examples: Leaf Rollers, Caddisfly larvae, Sumac Gall Aphids
PHYSICAL DEFENCE can involve hard physical structures that are part of the animal’s body:
Hard exoskeleton: Examples: many beetles, millipedes
Shells formed from internal skeleton: Examples: Turtles: Blanding’s Turtle can partially close its shell,
Hard shells formed from Calcium: Examples: Snails, Clams
ANIMAL PHYSICAL DEFENCES INCLUDE:
A) SILK WEBS FOR PROTECTION: EASTERN TENT CATERPILLAR, FALL WEBWORM
B) LONG BODY HAIRS: MANY CATERPILLARS: GYPSY MOTH, WOOLLY BEAR
C) BODY HAIR (GUARD HAIRS) MODIFIED INTO QUILLS: PORCUPINE
ANIMAL CHEMICAL DEFENCES
POISON SPINES: HAIRS THAT ARE BRANCHED AND TIPPED WITH TOXINS:
I.E., IO MOTH CATERPILLAR, (SPINY OAK SLUG)
USUALLY APOSEMATIC COLORATION = BRIGHT WARNING COLORATION IS
INVOLVED TOXINS CAN HAVE BAD TASTE, MAKE THE EATER ILL, BURN, ETC.
CHEMICAL DEFENCES ARE FOUND IN OR RELEASED BY A VARIETY OF BODY
A) SKIN: RED EFT (SALAMANDER) (SAMANDAR