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Lecture 3

BIOL 1902 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Cardiac Glycoside, Photuris, Cantharidin

Course Code
BIOL 1902
Michael Runtz

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BIOL 1902 – Week 3
Colour Patterns:
-Eyespots always displayed to make animals look larger
oE.g. Pandorus Sphinx
- Startle patterns can look like eyes, but theyre hidden until needed
oSometimes fail to work
o1st function of startle pattern: to startle
oStartle patterns can have 2nd function: to distract or direct attack of predator to
specific part of body (Distraction Patterns)
oThey can deflect predator’s attack to non-vital body part
- Obvious eyespots – e.g., on wings of butterflies
oCan serve sometimes as distraction patterns
- Some butterflies have “tails” – moves up and down when they fly which can attract
oE.g., Striped Hairstreak, Banded Hairstreak, Acadian Hairstreak, Eastern Tailed
o“tails” can look like antennae on “head”
- Fake antennae & heads can serve as Distraction or Deflection structures
oE.g., Canadian Tiger Swallowtail, “fresh” Giant Swallowtail
Distraction Patterns:
- E.g. Five-lined Skink
oBlue tail on a young – the slightest touch causes the tail to disconnect from body;
grow new tail overtime
-Autotomy: when a body part is discarded, then grows back
Body Armour:
- Physical Defence can consist of body armour
- E.g. Armadillo, Narceus millipede, beetles, turtles, snails, Click Beetle
- Snail shells can be made of calcium
- E.g. Clams (Bivalves) have shells
- E.g. Red-eared Slider turtles (non-native, expand in places where native species live)
- Withdraw into shell when frightened
- E.g. Painted Turtle, Map Turtle, Wood Turtle
- E.g. Blanding’s Turtle (species in risk, not endangered) – like a drawbridge, they can
partly close shell
oCan roughly estimate age of turtle by rings on shell
- No defence is perfect
- E.g. Snapping Turtle – don’t hold by tail; pick them up by fingers from back of shell &
hold away from you
oThey can’t defend themselves
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