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Lecture 14

BIOL 1902 Lecture Notes - Lecture 14: Beringia, Scavenger, Coevolution

Course Code
BIOL 1902
Michael Runtz

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-Baby clams called glochidium
oEctoparasites during baby stage
Ectoparasite adaptations:
-Organs for detecting hosts
oCan detect humidity, temperature changes, carbon dioxide
-Mouthparts for penetrating & holding
oEx. Leech
-Tick Hypostome:
oWhat ticks stick into host to draw blood
oPalps: “covers” for hyposome
oBarbs: help hold tick to host
oHave area where ticked off grabs mouth parts
oHave area where tweezers usually break off body, leaving mouth parts
oAnticoagulants to keep blood flowing
-Flattened shape to climb through feather, hair (flat flies, live)
oClaws to grip
-Black flies & mosquitos aren’t ectoparasites; females only feed temporarily for egg
-Obligate parasites: leeches, ticks, etc.
Ectoparasites have problems:
-Hosts can die, therefore parasites die
-Removal of hosts
oEx. Foxes scratch
oHosts groom & preen – ex. Birds
Herons have special grooming claw = Pectinate Toe (rub through feathers
to remove parasites)
Beavers have double or “split” toenail to groom their fur (not known how
they use it)
Other parasites live inside their host:
-Called endoparasites
-True parasites don’t kill hosts; parasitoids do
-Cutererbra (Bot Fly) = endoparasitic only as larva – ex. Inside mice, chipmunks
oFemale lays eggs on ground, when small mammal walks over eggs, heat of animal
makes eggs hatch, larvae shoots up out of eggs, grabs onto animal’s hair on the
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