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Lecture

Nov 14.docx

2 Pages
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Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL 1902
Professor
Michael Runtz

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Plants face another nutritional challenge
o Lack of sunlight (shade)
Outgrow competition
Some shade plants have leaves with a LARGE SURFACE AREA
Round-leaved Orchids have LARGE leaves PARALLEL to the ground
Save energy
Hobblebush
Big leaves to capture sunlight (adaption)
Chlorophyll b > chlorophyll a
Nature’s Toilet Paper
Bunchberries exhibit Clonal growth leaves are attached to a common
rhizome (clones)
o Can have big leaves or many leaves for this adaption
Phototropism growing towards the light (moving)
Wild Cucumbers grow atop other plants
Tendrils are thigmotropic REALLY sensitive, more than fingertips
Many vines are negatively phototropic
o Moves away from sunlight
o Why negatively?
So it can wrap around plant and climb on it
Tendrils have power of touch
Trilliums have another solution to the shade problem
Many species of SPRING EPHEMERALS grow in deciduous forests
Another solution is to lose the need for sunlight
o Striped Coralroot (no leaves)
How does it get food?
Saprophyte (fungus and plant roots)
Coralroots attain nutrients from mycorrhizae associated with
other plants
Coralroots are mycoheterotrophs
Live like thieves
Indian Pipe does not need sunlight
o Mycorrhizal Associations
Indian Pipe gets nutrients from living plants
Lives like parasite
Shade-dwelling orchids
o Photosynthesize AND steal carbon from other plants through mycorrhizae
o MIXOTROPHS
Cancerroot has no leaves and NO mychorrhiza
Its roots form hausteria in the cells of other plants, which it finds by tracking their
strigolactones

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Description
 Plants face another nutritional challenge o Lack of sunlight (shade)  Outgrow competition  Some shade plants have leaves with a LARGE SURFACE AREA  Round-leaved Orchids have LARGE leaves PARALLEL to the ground  Save energy  Hobblebush  Big leaves to capture sunlight (adaption)  Chlorophyll b > chlorophyll a  Nature’s Toilet Paper  Bunchberries exhibit Clonal growth – leaves are attached to a common rhizome (clones) o Can have big leaves or many leaves for this adaption  Phototropism – growing towards the light (moving)  Wild Cucumbers grow atop other plants  Tendrils are thigmotropic – REALLY sensitive, more than fingertips  Many vines are negatively phototropic o Moves away from sunlight o Why negatively?  So it can wrap around plant and climb on it  Tendrils have power of touch  Trilliums have another solution to the shade problem  Many species of SPRING EPHEMERALS grow in deciduous forests  Another solution is to lose the need for sunlight o Striped Coralroot (no leaves)  How does it get food?  Saprophyte (fungus and plant roots)  Coralroots attain nutrients from mycorrhizae associated with other plants  Coralroots are mycoheterotrophs  Live like thieves  Indian Pipe does not need sunlight o Mycorrhizal Associations  Indian Pipe gets nutr
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