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HIST 1002 - 21 10 11.docx

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Carleton University
HIST 1002
Christopher Adams

21/10/11  1917-1918  The end of Tasarist Russia o Tsar Nicholas II & Tsarina Alexandra o Russia badly divided  Ethnic hostilities  More than 100 ethnic groups  Ran by the White Russians  Most of the population were not “white Russians”  Very conservative o Tsar Nicholas’ military gamble  Domestic consequences  Russians saw Tsar as a father figure  Tsar removed himself from political life  1905 onwards, the faith towards the Tsar was wavering o Grigorii Rasputin (1865-1916)  Illiterate mystic healer and monk  Aristocrats are unhappy with this  A group of counts create a plot to assassinate Rasputin o Feed him poisoned cake o Shoot him  He doesn’t die o Throw him off a cliff o Drown him  Peasant background  Important for Russian Orthodox church  Temporarily healed Aleksei - son of the Tsar  Suffered from haemophilia   Tsar’s advisor  Rasputin’s death  Political chaos in Russia  Dissatisfaction with Tsar  Rising war casualties  Economic problems  The March Revolution o Women demonstrate in Petrograd o Troops ordered to put down protest, but refuse  When your police and troupes refuse to follow you then your government is finished o Tsar Nicholas abdicates  The Provisional Government o Two competing centres of power o The duma  Provisional government o Petrograd soviet o Provisional government’s social reforms  Lvov was first governor but left quickly  Didn’t want to leave WW1  Kerensky was second  Liberal  Wanted a democracy  Didn’t want to leave WW1 o “Bread, land, peace”  Bread and land yes but no peace  Added socioeconomic assistance  Broke up some of the large estates o The continued war  Problem of desertion  They wanted peace and land not bread  Means you cannot fight  People came back with their weapons o Everyone in Russia has weapons  They are unhappy  Kerensky went to the frontlines to rally the troupes o Since he wasn’t at home he didn’t realize how angry people were with staying in the war o Lavr Kornilov o The soviets  Small committees/councils in municipalities  Every city has one  Bolsheviks run most of these soviets  Most important ones are in Petrograd and Moscow  Bolsheviks are radicalised communists who want a violent revolution  Kerensky is not enough  They want a dictatorship for the proletariat o Lenin lead another revolution in 1917  The rise of Bolsheviks  Vladimir Lenin returns after exile  The “Sealed Train” o A train that goes from Switzerland to Russia o Difficult because he’d have to go through German territory  Germany probably helped him to ensure Lenin would cause chaos in Russia  Then Russia would drop out of the war  Wanted immediate working class revolution led by vanguard  Growth in Bolshevik membership  Want to overthrow the government o Not just peace, land and bread  Demands overthrow of Provisional government  Wanted a revolution led by the Vangard  Those who stand on the front  Is it possible to have a revolution without a leader? o At the beginning maybe not o At the end you need someone to step in o Bolsheviks in Power  Policy of land and peace  Treaty of Brest-Litovsk 1918  Russia giving up the war  Has to give up a lot of land on its western boarder o Some of this land goes to Germany o Most of the countries gain independence  Germans are happy   Russian generals were unhappy about it  Opposition to Bolshevik policies  Democratic centralism was encouraged o You have to accept the party rule o People who criticized the government were hurt or killed  Dictatorial methods, repression and terror  Cheka  Had power to execute without trial  500 people executed in single day on the first few months of Lenin’s rule  Gruesome execution of the former Royal Family  King, queen and children  Civil War between the “Reds” and “Whites”  Reds supported Lenin  Whites were everyone who didn’t like Lenin o Mensheviks who were communists who just didn’t support Lenin o Military generals who wanted the old monarchy o Other countries o Supporters of Kerensky  Difficult for a government to control the entire state because its huge  Lenin was just as murderous as Stalin  Was not in power for
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