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LING 1001
Karin Nault

LING 1001B January 30, 2014 Phonology  The study of • distribution of sounds in a language – How sounds are organized and used in natural languages. • the interactions between those different sounds – Rules that specify how sounds interact with each other • What is the organization of sounds in a given language? • Which sounds are predictable and which are unpredictable in given contexts? • Which sounds affect the identities of words? Phonetics ­ Phonology  Phonetics • Basis for phonological analysis • Analyzes the production of all human speech sounds (regardless of language) Phonology – Basis for further work in morphology, syntax, discourse, etc. – Analyzes the sound patterns of a particular language • Determining which phonetic sounds are significant • Explaining how these sounds are interpreted (by the native speaker) What is a phoneme?  • The smallest contrastive unit in the sound system of a language. • American structuralist tradition: – Phoneme is defined according to its allophones and environments • Generative tradition: • Phoneme is defined by a set of distinctive features. LING 1001B January 30, 2014 Distinctive features  • /i/ • /p/ +syllabic -syllabic -consonantal +consonantal +sonorant -sonorant +high -low +anterior -back -coronal -round -voice +ATR -continuant -nasal -nasal Components of Generative Phonology  • Phonetic representations are assigned to utterances – Reflect native speaker’s internalized grammar • Levels of phonological representations – Underlying representation – Phonetic representation Phonological rules – Map underlying representations onto phonological representations. Name the largest city in Ontario  • Toronto, right? – How did you say ‘Toronto’? – [təˈɹɑnto] – [ˈtɹɑnə] Say the another name for purse  • handbag • [hæñ dbæg] • [hæñ bæg] • [hæm̃ bæg] LING 1001B January 30, 2014 • [hæm̃ bæ?] Phonotactics  Certain sounds which are permissible in English  Ex. Psychology (starts with /s/) • Possible words • Restrictions on what C and V patterns go together to making up syllables and words • Restrictions differ from one language to the other (ex. French and English) • Restrictions can be formulated in rules Phonotactic constraints  = Restriction on possible combinations of sounds. Restrictions of word­initial consonants in English  • All may begin a word of English with two exceptions – [ŋ] and [ʒ] (ex. The –ing in singer and the –sur in leisure) Restrictions of word­initial consonants in English  • Two-consonant combinations – Stop or fricative (ex. Print, bring, play) followed by a liquid or a glide • [bɹ] bring [θɹ] three • [gl] glean [fl] fly • [mj] music [hj] humour [sw] sweet • [kw] quick • Internal grammar has figured out what s and is not permissible in language • Other two-consonant combinations – [s] followed by voiceless and nasal stops • [st] steam • [sm] smear • snoop – [s] followed by [f] and [v] LING 1001B January 30, 2014 • [sf] sphere • [sv] svelte – [ʃ] can be followed by [ɹ] in native English clusters • [ʃɹ] shrink – a nasal stop or a liquid in non-native English clusters • ‘Schlemiel, Schnook, schlepp’ • But also by a stop as in ‘Spiel’ Location of combination matters (ps in psychology vs. ps in stop) Sound constraints in different positions  Syllable type  • Basic syllable structure • Syllables’ can have consonants, vowels in any order or combination (ex. On next page) • 2 main divisions – Onset • All consonants before the vowel – Rhyme (sometimes spelled rime) • Nucleus: vowel or diphthong • Coda: consonants following vowel (if any Multisyllabic words (English)  • Two principles yield unique syllable structures – Maximize onsets – Avoid rhymes ending in lax vowels • Maximize onsets in English – As many consonants as possible into the onset • Maximum determined by possible one-syllable words • Avoid rhymes ending in lax vowels – e.g., *[bə], *[tɪ] LING 1001B January 30, 2014 • Simple closed syllable – WORD Syllable types in English  V= VowelC= consonant • V a • VC at • CV • CCCV no
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