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Lecture 11

LACS 1002 Lecture Notes - Lecture 11: Sandinista Ideology, Daniel Ortega, Chapultepec Peace Accords


Department
Latin American and Caribbean Studies
Course Code
LACS 1002
Professor
Silvina Danesi
Lecture
11

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Civil War in Central America
The 1980s was a period of..
- economic losses (debt crisis 1982 - the << Lost Decade>>)
- political gains (democratization)
- civil wars (Central America)
Before the Civil War
Nicaragua
- Adolfo Diaz: president 1910s - 1920s; supported by the US
- US marines arrived to fight against rebel forces
- Guardia Nacional (National Guard); national military forces
- 1910 - 1913: US intervention - National Guard (NG)
- 1912 - 33 “De Facto” US protectorate (never regulated by a treaty);
- customs control lasted until 1944
- Augusto Sandino: resistance leader against US occupation
- 1933: Anastasio Somoza Garcia: Chief of NG after protectorate ended
- Juan Sacassa elected president; wanted to pacify the country
- 1934: Sandino had a meeting with President Sacassa regarding this matter
- the national guard executed Augusto Sandino after this meeting
- 1936: military coup: Somoza ousted Sacassa
- 1937-79: The Somoza “dynasty” (of dictators)
- Anastasio 1937-56; Luis 56/67; Anastasio Jr 67-79; family of dictators
- Anastasio was assassinated in 56 and his son Luis took power
- 1961: Sandinista National Liberation Front - FSLN (Frente Sandinista de Liberacion
Nacional); marxist guerrilla group fighting against the Somoza dynasty
- power passed to Anastasio Jr; used public office for his own gains
El Salvador
- 1920s: state of social unrest due to extreme inequality and distribution of wealth
- tension between land owners, peasants and indigenous people (Pipil/Nahuat)
- 1931: military coup ousted the democratically elected president
- 1932: peasant/indigenous rebellion
- Agustin Farabundo Marti: head of the communist party in El Salvador; fought alongside
Sandino in Nicaragua
- The Massacre (La Matanza) Jan - July 1932; Salvadorian military slaughtered nearly 40,000
rebels including Agustin Farabundo Marti; indigenous (people who spoke Pipil or wore
indigenous clothing) were killed on sight as an act of genocide
- 50 years of direct, brutal military rule (alliance between military regimes + landowners)
- 1980s: Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front - FMLN; guerrilla groups
Guatemala
- 1931-1944: dictatorship (Jorge Ubico)
- 1944-1954: Guatemalan Revolution (Arevalo-Arbenz)
- 1954: CIA covert military operation; military coup
- 1954-1990s: alliance: military regimes + owners of plantations/foreign investors
- fraudulent elections restricted civilian rule
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