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Western University
Geography 2020A/B
Terry Biggs

UNIT 4: LAND, INEQUALITY,AND REVOLUTIONARY STRUGGLE th Late 19 C: Enduring inequality of land and Society - Volatility o Uneven societies held together by force o Landed elites are very tied to military class so peasants cant stand a chance against the elite o Fuentes: In 20 C, LAat war with the Past o LaFeber: Inevitable Revolutions- CentralAmerica was so unequal and so repressive against the republics that revolution was inevitable. o Increasingly tied to US Economic Interest E.g. Banana Republics (the peasants are very interested and rising up for land reform and the dictators but the American economies are tied into the republics etc. so the US was involved heavily. Case 1: Mexico Military dictatorship under one man named Profrio Diaz (1876-1911) called the Porfiriato. Diaz had this vision of industrializing Mexico - Aggressive modernization nd - Foreign investment, infrastructure, urbanization 2 Conquest rule elites expropriating vast land from small holders and indigenous peoples. This was seen as almost the second conquest of indigenous land. Est. 1% of farmers: 97% of arable land at the cusp of theAmerican Revolution. So Diaz controls Mexico for 4 decades, and then it erupts. It targeted the landholders and dictatorship.Ahuge revolutionary of Mexico Emiliano Zapata fought for liberty and land. Zapata led the liberation army of the south.Another man named Pancho Villa was the revolutionary of the north; he was like the dirty Mexican Robin Hood. Took from rich and give too poor. Mexican Revolution: - Extremely violent war uncertain just how many people died even, in the millions o Mexican Population was in 1910: 15 million, and then in 1920, it was 13.5 Million - Zapata Murdered in 1919 - What emerges: after revolution o Not radical reforms but, o 1929 – Institutional revolutionary party – virtual 1 party system until 1990s - 1934-40: CardenasAdmin o only government to approach some of the goals of major revolutionaries o land reform (ejido system) sovereignty not merely economic - - assumed right to control politics and intervene militarily - US solution to protect its interests: local stronment, imperialism without colonies Nicaragua (Part 1) • Colonial backwater • William walker conquers – 1856-57 • By late 19 century >> classic banana republic (example: banana production and trade, rail, ports, mines, banking) • US intervening regularly – the US had its tentacles in everything- the head was described as the uncrowned king of centralAmerica • 1912-25: US marine occupation (troops stay beyond 1925) • 1926-33: Constitutional War: liberals vs conservates – war between the elite classes struggling over what the future holds • peasant movement built and is fighting for redistribution of land and to get the US out of Nicaragua Augusto Cesar Sandino • via US occupation • starts with a handful of peasants that build to a guerrilla army tactic • • develops small, successful guerrilla army • fights US marines – 1927 to 1933 in 1933- US troops exit, but leave behing National guard • a country governed by the national guard - headed by general anastasio Somoza • in 1934- sandino tricked and killed by Somoza • father passing power to his son and then another son- for four decades this family dominates Haiti • 1915-34 – US governs after invasion • 1918: grants US corporations the right to won land (outlawed since REvl’n) • coffee exports taxed to pay off debts to US banks and other foreign creditors • resistance suppressed • after 1934 • us keeps control of national bank • leaves behind virtual police state • after they leave the still control the national bank and also leave behind a military regime • in 1956 – military coup- francois ‘papa doc’duvalier 1956-71 Papa Doc • political repression (tonton macoute) – the famous secret police that he develops- they are feared across Haiti for their political killings of opponents • • economic misery predatory state and intense corruption • 1971-86- Baby Doc anointed • gives his son(nineteen year old son) the power • US ambassador supervises transition • Promoting export-processing industry – sweatshop factories • 1986-91 – military dictators • 1991- first deomocratic elections ever! Jean-BertrandAristide • elected 1991 >> coup • restored: 1994-96 • elected 2011 >>overthrown 2004 • Fuentes: LAat war with the past • LaFeber: inevitable revolutions • Uprising vs: • Large landholding classes (often linked to political- military class) • US TNCS • Pre world war 2- support for econoic interest more explicit • After world war 2, a new dynamic • Cold war • Us intervention >> anti-communist (frequently allied to dictators) • Galeano: the class struggle only exists, we are told, because foreign agents (USSR) stir it up- only happening because the soviets are the ones driving it • 1970s: around 60% of people in latinAmerica were under us- supported dictatorships • Guatemala • Aseries of dictators tied to united fruit company (UFC) • 1944- military officers overthrow dictators, bring new, progessive constitution • 1951- second ever election • jacobo arbenz wins 2/3 of the vote o series of reforms aimed at reducing role of US corporations in economy, especially UFC o example: government port, new highway, new hydroelectric o trying to reduce the US influence - land reform of unused ufc land (only using small percent) - 2% of Guatemala population- around 70% of arable land - UFC biggest landowner Arbenz reform: fairly modest, legal means - At first basically trying to buy the idle UFC land - Arbenz government - 1953- eventually seized land - painted as red blight in c.a. - zemurray (ufc): calls this the beginning of Soviet expansion in theAmericas - operation success: 1954: CIAdestabilization and US marines - arbenz resigns and flees for his life fearing hes going to be assinated guatemalas descent - arbenz replaced with military dictator - carlos Castillo armas (US immediately recognizes that its legit) - undoes reforms- the land reforms with respect to united fruit- back to business with united fruit- wipes away the land reform - string of dictators and a 36 year civil war- war between the army and the poor people – many villages anilated spiral of violence, peaks in the early 1980s - th The famous 20 century revolutionary who witnesses arbenz coup After guatemala, goes to mexico and crosses pathas with castro UNIT 5: REVOLUTIONARY STRUGGLEAND COUNTER- REVOLUTION Cuba: Recall: - 19 century- sugar boom and late slavery Cuba’s semi-independence With the US controlling whose in charge - series of invasions, occupations, and allied dictators - dominant figure (1930s to 50s)- Fulgencio Batista- 1933-40 – behind the scenes power, 1940-44- presidient, 1952 elections- leads coup, president again - US economic control example in 1956, us corporations control: - 75% of imports - - 85% exports - 90% mining industry - 40% of sugar industry 80% of public services - much of best arable land - - numbers not important - nickname for Havana:Americas little whorehouse - millionaires playygorund of casions and brothels for us tourists and organized crime 1952 elections/coup - Castro running for Congress - 1953: castro leads assault on moncada barracks – leads a very reckless assault on the military with about a hundred people - called the July 26 movement - history will absolve me- in court gives a famous speech 1955 >> exiled to Mexico The Granma - an old yacht with a capacity of 25 people but 82 people set off on this huge journey in November 25 - aim to get into cuba - nd - land in December 2 - batista had caught wind that they were coming - hoped to gth into the mountains and then build up from there - December 5 , most killed, castro declared dead - Batista declared that fedel was killed - 20 make it into mountains of sierra masetra – where they originally wanted to go - that’s the seeds of the Cuban revolution Cuban Revolution 1956-59 - get rooted; begin gerrilla war vs bautista dictatorship - trying to attack the military and trying to build up the support from the peasants - builds strength over time 1959: batista flees, castro sweeps into Havana - US stops supporting btista near the end- not sure what to make of castro After Cuban revolution - 1/8 population flees : the Miami Cubans and execute around 70 batista loyalists - castro seize us and elite propery - major land reform - goes to us seeking conciliation - rebuffed, turns to ussr - bay of pigs- first in a series of coup or assassination attempts Cuban missile crisis - 1962: US releases photos of Soviety nuclear missile siolos in cuba - the us had clear evidence of the soviets establishing these sites - us and ussr on brink of nuclear war Che in Bolivia: - try to set up a revolution just like they had done in cuba takes 16 cubans with him to Bolivia - Chile - as elsewhere, geographies of inequality both: - 1) internal: 1970: 2.5% landholders/ 75% land –land reform- wants to change that - 2) external: since 1920s a copper republic- has a large copper reserve – defined by that one resource- had become very dependent on it - 2) 1970: large share of commerce and industry foreign-owned (largely US) 1960s: centrist governments backed by US - 1970 election: left coalition government – managing this big alliance but his agenda is - about gaining a bigger share of the copper wealth and dealing with the interal inequalities of land distribution >> Salvador allende - external- nationalization of foreign co’s - US response: - economic blockade - aggressive de-stabilization - In addition to US interference,Allende wrestling with: - Unwieldy coalition - Upper and middle class and military dissent – the US is working economically with Chilean alite and builing alliances with the military 1973: US supports coup The Chilean 9-11 Salvador allende is toppled - Then pinochet’s reign began - around 3000 killed and disappeared - 30000 tortured and 200000 fled reverses land redistribution and nationalizations (except copper) - strong US ally (CIAbacked the terrorist groups that were bombing and destroying the - land) - rules until 1990, influence lingered - attempts to get arrested/trial/to justice- eventually gets stripped of his immunity of trial when he left power – dies facing a pile of charges – his last decade is spent trying to avoid prosecution for the well documented crimes committed- lots of evidence - Pinochet was detained for crimes against humanity – due to the hard work of the international human rights movement - Pinochet has set a precedent for other public officials that engage in state terrorism and abuse human rights Operation Condor 1970s - military alliance of 6 LAgovernments (argentina, chile, Uruguay, Paraguay, Bolivia and brazil) - the condor years- starting with Pinochet following the repressive apparatus that was made through the alliances made – the 6 governments - chile is the leader of this - kidnappings, tortue, and political assassinations (about 60 000 deaths) - dinges: details US relations with LAintelligence agencies responsible for assassinations and systematic human rights violations – the author of the book the condor years The Somoza dictatorship - “ you name it, they own it” - very powerful and strong US support - but grip on power weakens: - 1) 1972: earthquake flattens Managua (around 6000 killed, lots injured, and half the housing stock is damaged) - forigen aid pours in and the corruption of this region happens - Somoza pockets international relief - 2) 1978: pedro Chamorro assassination (newspaper editor) The Sandinisas - promise democratic transtion, but firs want to inititate some reforms - land reform - free national health care - literacy and education campaign - US response: - At first support - Carter authorized emergency aid - 1980: Reagan suspends aid - Reagan blames carter for Sandinistas – draws line in the sand vs communism in ca and Caribbean The contras - somoza’s ex army - Reagan calls them freedom fighters - The former army of a four decade long of dictatorship but now fighting against what is seen as a great threat to us security Reagans line in the sand - jeane Kirkpatrick distinguishes: - authoritarian regimes: (eg Somoza) good because they don’t threaten US interest, deserve friendly relations totalitarian regimes (eg Sandinistas) bad, need to be overthrown - 1980s: Sandinistas facing US backed contra war - second smallest population in centralAmerica - around 30 000 killed - sencond poorest country in western hemisphere - economic pressure (embargo) - Somoza gutted treasur and fled to Miami - 1990 elections>> Sandinistas lose Where does the church fit in all of this revolutionary struggle? Liberation theology vs very conservative 1996-7: civil war officially ends Guatemalan truth commission (1999) – 1 million displaced - war waged against the army - of the 200 000 people killed the Guatemalan was responsible for 93% of the deaths, the guerrilla rebels for 3% of the killings - Argentina’s dirty war - Many kids were adopted from families that had caused the death of their own parents - Mothers and grandmothers of the plaza de mayo- would write their children’s names on the scarfs- their form of political protest Drew attention to orphans of the dirty wars and bring justice to the former generals and - intellectual authors - Chile: they dance alone - Women dancing with pictures of disappeared husbands and sons - Part of relentless fight to bring Pinochet to justice Still many people that are still trying to bring him to legal justice- even though he is - already dead Brazil: struggles vs junta and enduring inequality 1978- rise of independent union movement 1979: workers party (PT) electoral change and left and centre-left turn Unit 6: reform responses to uneven development and the ISI model (including migration and rising urbanization) Reading: green “silent revolution” pages 28-33 At the run of the 20 century, LAC overwhelmingly rural and agrarian - one of the least industrialized regions in the world - x economies still based on narrow range of commodities why? - Powerful colonial inheritance - Spain and portual: concerned with raw materials – of the resource extraction, inhibited processing – designed to produce things and send them across the atlantic, inhibited scientific education - Limited innovation and investment research - 19 century - Britain, later us dominatig trade and investment - Limited processing emerges but most manufactured good imported Galeano - single products embody the fate of countries, regions, and peoples - infrastructure a guide to the purpose of a countrys development - Europe/us – roads and rails >> network >> internal commerce - LatinAmerica- series of drainage basins pointing at ports and borders, built to empty the nation of wealth/ external benefit Basic 2-fold landscapes of inequality - urban vs rurual (trade vs production) – the wealth being controlled by a small number of folks dominating the trade – in rural areas huge inequalities in the distribution of land - latifundia vs minifundia – a small number of very large scale landowners only the best land- the mini are the farming pop and are confined to smaller lands - by 1900: some basic raw material refining and consumer goods, limited technology and dynamism** - small percentage is urban, but that urban population controls a disproportiate scale of the wealth Southern Cone - earliest urbanization and industral development, but still hinged on wealth - forbid the colonies from exploiting industry - limited industry- the urbanization that is there is based on the extraction of resource wealth - southern cone= chile, argenetina, Uruguay, and southern brazil - hinged on wealth from: Southern Brazilian highlands (coffee {70%} and minerals) and the Pampas (wheat and beef) - early 20 centuryArgentina: the 5 richest country in the world Status quo shook by: - Great depression (1930s)- the export demand was hit hard (exports fell by over half)- the country suddenly had no hard currency with which to import= can’t afford imports - Just like the UK under John Maynard Keynes – realized that the state had to play a much greater role in running the economy if future crashes were to be avoided - initial focus: substitute more basic consumer goods (example: low technology manufactures) – had to start producing simple manufactured goods to fill in the gap left by the import collapse - BUT: export sector still focused on resources - When ww2 came (1940s): caused a resource boom! – nations were now desperate for LatinAmerica’s exports - Used this boom to begin import substitution industrialization (ISI) To understand ISI, need to understand dependency theory and central question of… - why, after 4 ½ centuries linked to global trade networks was LAC still relatively: unindustrialized, undiversified, externally influenced, dependent upon imports, with - widespread poverty - in the 50s and 60s: dependency theory very influential - neocolonialism- colonial period has long ended for the region, the endurance of those characteristics, continued beyond independence (unindustrialized….) – political dependence but still having those characteristics - influential person= raul prebisch (1950) : ECLA, later with UNCTAD - ECLA= a UN body – an economist working with the UN system Can argue: - though formal colonialism long over, LAC ( and other parts of the TW) were locked in neocolonial economic relations with Europe and us – endurance of the colonial inheritance - In short: LAC nations will not develop into modern, industrialized economies when they are dependent upon: o exporting narrow range of low-priced raw materials o importing diverse range of manufactured goods >>locus of innovation residues in rich countries >> outflows of profits and interest o rather: stagnation, state intervention needed for industrialization thus - colonialism created a global economy with: - metropolitan “CORE” - diversified, integrated, industrialized economies - long term flow from periphery to the core - dependent PERIPHERY - narrow, commodity, dependent economies - periphery= underdeveloped -- latinAmerica is in a position of underdevelopment- relatively limited economies, not integrated - in short: without intervention, countries not going to evolve out of peripheral positions - but key factor inhibiting state intervention: - dependence on foreign capital mirrored within LAC nations internal colonialims - - the comprador class- that class gets viewed as an elite that are not investing in technology, or surpluses, just trying to control its share of the resource wealth that’s flowing out of the region the compradors - small percent of society controlling the wealth in trade - interests bound to mother country, later US TNCs (and to preserving the system) not pursuing diversification, innovation = limited development of industry or internal - market - often racial issues linked to class Prebisch: reformist approach to overcoming dependency - in essence: promote local manufacturing to progressively replace imports - import substitution industrialization (isi)** - increasingly taken up in the 1950s and 1960s - set of policies that are very influential - many governments are listening to him - especially by bigger, wealthier countries (example southern cone and Mexico) - foreign investment needed, but guided by the state HOW? ISI- key policies for governments: 1) support to domestic companies (private sector) –subsidies and financial incentives (example tax breaks) 2) nationalize key industries (state ownership) – often involved purchasing foreign owned assets –costly: managerial contracts, technological rents (purchase of plants but still a dependence on the imported technology- which meant continuing paying royalties or to have to continue ordering the plant parts) – rarely was an industry out right nationalized- often continued to be a degree of dependence 3) protect markets (example: high tariffs) for finished products – a way of managing imports - enable the importation to make the product (all the little parts) but then high tariffs on the finished products—wouldn’t want to import finished products would want to make it themselves 4) regulate foreign investment Issue of Economic Dependancy= BIG theme Unit 7: Debt, StructualAdjustment,And Neoliberal Prescriptio
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