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Lecture 2

LACS 1002 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Tupi People, Cannibalism, Paubrasilia

Latin American and Caribbean Studies
Course Code
LACS 1002
Silvina Danesi

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The Colonial Era: Different Paths to Independence
Christopher Columbus
- Christopher Columbus inaugurated the colonization of the Americas
- explorer, navigator hired by Spain and its Catholic monarchs: Isabella and Ferdinand
- supposed to go to the East Indies; ended up in the New World Oct. 12 1492
- landed on Sal Salvador: island in the Bahamas
- believed he had reached India; called the native americans “Indians”
- this group of native americans were called Tainos
- Columbus Day: 2nd Monday in October in the U.S.
- celebrated the discovery of America; “Descubrimiento de America”
- Latin American and Caribbean countries also used to celebrate this day
- 1992: 500th anniversary supposed to take place; decided to change the name
- “Day of indigenous resistance” (Venezuela)
- “The day of the discovery of two worlds” (Chile)
- “The beginning of the war against Spanish colonialism” (Cuba)
- “The day of cultures” (Costa Rica)
- “Day of respect for cultural diversity” (Argentina)
- no holiday: Mexico, Ecuador, Bolivia, Brazil, Haiti, Jamaica
- Spain occupied the majority of the LAC except for Brazil (Portuguese discovered in 1500)
- Dominican Republic and Haiti = Hispaniola; Haiti later came under French rule
- West Indies: British and French colonization during the 17th century; 1612-1664
- Spain lost two large sections of the Caribbean; 1664: French took the western half of
Hispaniola (Haiti) and the British invaded Jamaica in 1665
- United Kingdom of Great Britain; England is just an autonomous region
The Spanish Conquest
- The Habsburgs (15th to 17th centuries) + The Bourbons (18th to 19th centuries): Spanish
dynasties during the Conquest
- conquered a region 40 times the size of Spain
- when the Spanish first came, 50 million indigenous people already lived there
- Taino, Caribs and Arawoks in the Caribbean
- Apache in northern Mexico and U.S.
- Aztecs in central Mexico;
- Mayas in the Yucatan peninsula, Guatemala and Honduras
- Inca in Peru, Colombia, Ecuador, Bolivia and northern Chile
- Mapuche in Argentina and Chile
- The “Conquistadores” (Conquistadors)
- Hernan Cortes: defeated the Aztecs with 500 soldiers
- Francisco Pizarro: landed on the Peruvian coast with 168 soldiers; controlled the Incan
empire by 1535
The “Easy” Conquest: Explanations
- European diseases: typhus, small pox
- Forced labour (mines): silver mines in Potosi (Bolivia); 8 million indigenous people died
working in these mines; miners chew coca leaves for altitude sickness
- Spanish military technology: swords made of steel, iron; had horses; cannons; indigenous
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