LING 3005 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Lexeme, Semantic Change, Reduplication

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9 Feb 2016
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LING 3005 – February 3
-ing seems to be inection or derivation, it is productive, but it changes class
-ly (turns an adjective into an adverb) modi$es verb – complimentary
distribution
It is easy to use these de$nitions to sort them into one category or another?
Parts of derivation can be summed up as irregular (semantic change, non-
composition, stem allomorphy)
-ing and –ly are very productive (100%) – all verbs can take –ing, almost* all
adjectives can take –ly
In some dialects of English, -ly is obligatory (inection)
They are, ultimately, derivational because most importantly they change
class*
Noun: it can take a determiner, subject, or object, ‘of’ phrase, pluralize, take
an adjective, take numbers
Ie, running is a noun
Distribution testing, had the distribution we expect of nouns, it is a noun
O6cial de$nition: a noun is a thing that goes where nouns go
Person, place or thing is a semantic de$nition
All class is syntactic distribution
If we cannot determine a di8erence in derivation or inection, then how do
we determine the di8erence between lexeme and word form?
Syntax had its own little inection head, but never derivation  split
morpheme hypothesis (main Syntax theory)
Lexemes: derivation/inection must be di8erent, but it’s not clear cut the
items that sort the distinction between them
Strict Dichotomy: one or the other, not both – they should be able to fall into
a category
Continuum approach: not compatible with Split Morpheme Hypothesis – no
explanatory power, no discriminatory power, no distinction
Rejection approach”: Dominant theory in morphology, there is no distinction
between inection and derivation
Aphasia: assuming we had one that took away inection and not derivation,
which would show us there is a di8erence (there is an aphasia that does this)
But, you’re more likely to memorize derivational words than inectional
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