PSYCHOLOGY-THEMES & VARIATIONS
Chapter One- The Evolution of Psychology
I. What is Phsychology?
a. ...science that studies behaviour and the physiological and
cognitive processes that underlie it, and it is the profession that
applies the accumulated knowledge of this science to practical
problems. (Weiten & McCann, 2010, 2013)
b. = psi soul
II. Pre 1879: Meditation and Pre-Science
a. Sophists ~ 470 BCE knowledge unattainable because
everything is subjective.
b. Socrates: inductive thinking from specific to general, rational
c. Platodont observe but deduce; body & soul independent.
d. Aristotle ~ 360 BCE; wrote about sensing, remembering,
desire, & thought.
e. Hippocrates 460-377 B.C.E.
i. Body sacred, autopsy taboo, little physiological knowledge
ii. Disorders due to brain pathology
iii. Humors: blood, black bile, phlegm, yellow bile
iv. Female hysteria? Uterus wandering through body pining
III. From Meditation to Science
a. Ren Descartes (~1630)
i. Mathematics so certain and philosophy so uncertain?
ii. cogito ergo sum
iii. Mind body dualism.
iv. Dissected animal brains and concluded pineal gland=soul
b. Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) University of Leipzig, Germany
i. Trained as doctor & physiologist.
ii. Goal: make psychology independent discipline.
iii. First psychological laboratory in 1879.
iv. Psychology was born in 1879!
IV. Structuralism & Introspection
a. Wundt, science of conscious experience.
b. Modeled after physics and chemistry.
i. Structuralism: analyze consciousness into basic elements
(structures) & how related.
1 ii. Believed consciousness could be reduced to basic elements.
iii.Systematic observation of ones conscious experience
iv. Particular attention to sound, vision.
c. Wundts international influence
i. Leipzig, the place to study psychology
ii. Wundt students set up labs across Europe & North America
iii. G. Stanley Hall (Johns Hopkins University) established 1st
psych lab in U.S. in 1883
iv. 1883 to1893, 24 new labs in North America
a. Darwin > Galton > William James (1890)
b. Humans use mental processes in adapting to environment.
c. Mental processes fluid, not fixed
d. Stream of consciousness
e. Studied children, animals, people with mental impairment
VI. Battle of the Schools: Structuralism vs. Functionalism
a. Structuralism led by Edward Titchener
i. Analyze consciousness into basic elements
ii. Primarily via introspection
b. Functionalism led by William James
i. Function or purpose of consciousness
ii. Led to investigation of mental testing, developmental
patterns, sex differences
iii. May have attracted first women to psychology
c. Who won the Battle?
i. Most historians: James and functionalists
1. Introspection does not allow independent objective
evaluation of a claim
ii. Applied psychology and Behaviourism - descendants of
1. Behaviourism - early 1900s; major influence on
VII. Gestalt Psychology
a. Max Wertheimer (1900s)
b. Perceive objects and patterns as whole units
c. Whole perceived as more than sum of parts.
d. Direct response to Structuralism.
e. Phi phenomenon:
2 a. Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
1. Mother 20 years younger than father
a. sexually attracted to his mother ?
2. Married Martha Bernays; violent, jealous, moody
3. Wife & family did not accompany on vacations
couldnt keep up
4. MD: specialized in neurology
5. Importance of dreams
6. Freudian slips like I dont think weve been
ii. Freuds Structures of Personality
1. Id: instincts, pleasure principle, completely
2. Ego: demands of reality (reality principle) & partially
3. Superego: deals with morality
iii. Psychosexual Stages
1. Oral: <1 yr. If needs unmet, thumb-sucking, pencil-
chewing, overeating & smoking may ensue
2. Anal: 1-3 yrs. If anal needs frustrated, result is
extreme order or disorder
3. Phallic: 3-6 yrs. Sexual desire for other sex parent,
results in super-ego
4. Latency: 6-11 yrs. Sexual urges quieten, social values
from adults & peers
5. Genital: adolescence+. If earlier stages successful,
mature sexuality emerges.
iv. Controversy and Influence
1. Behaviour influenced by unconscious.
2. Conflict related to sexuality is key.
3. Psychoanalysis: theory of personality & therapy for
treatment of personality disorders
4. Controversial, caused debate and resistance.
5. Significant influence on psychology & popular culture.
i. Behaviour that was observable, measurable & therefore,
objective and scientific.
ii. Internal, non-observable behaviour was not legitimate topic
b. Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936)