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Psychology 1001A

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PSYC 1001
Bruce Tsuji

PSYCHOLOGY-THEMES & VARIATIONS Semester One Chapter One- The Evolution of Psychology I. What is Phsychology? a. that studies behaviour and the physiological and cognitive processes that underlie it, and it is the profession that applies the accumulated knowledge of this science to practical problems. (Weiten & McCann, 2010, 2013) b. = psi soul II. Pre 1879: Meditation and Pre-Science a. Sophists ~ 470 BCE knowledge unattainable because everything is subjective. b. Socrates: inductive thinking from specific to general, rational self-examination. c. Platodont observe but deduce; body & soul independent. d. Aristotle ~ 360 BCE; wrote about sensing, remembering, desire, & thought. e. Hippocrates 460-377 B.C.E. i. Body sacred, autopsy taboo, little physiological knowledge ii. Disorders due to brain pathology iii. Humors: blood, black bile, phlegm, yellow bile iv. Female hysteria? Uterus wandering through body pining for children III. From Meditation to Science a. Ren Descartes (~1630) i. Mathematics so certain and philosophy so uncertain? ii. cogito ergo sum iii. Mind body dualism. iv. Dissected animal brains and concluded pineal gland=soul b. Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) University of Leipzig, Germany i. Trained as doctor & physiologist. ii. Goal: make psychology independent discipline. iii. First psychological laboratory in 1879. iv. Psychology was born in 1879! IV. Structuralism & Introspection a. Wundt, science of conscious experience. b. Modeled after physics and chemistry. i. Structuralism: analyze consciousness into basic elements (structures) & how related. 1 ii. Believed consciousness could be reduced to basic elements. iii.Systematic observation of ones conscious experience through introspection. iv. Particular attention to sound, vision. c. Wundts international influence i. Leipzig, the place to study psychology ii. Wundt students set up labs across Europe & North America iii. G. Stanley Hall (Johns Hopkins University) established 1st psych lab in U.S. in 1883 iv. 1883 to1893, 24 new labs in North America V. Functionalism a. Darwin > Galton > William James (1890) b. Humans use mental processes in adapting to environment. c. Mental processes fluid, not fixed d. Stream of consciousness e. Studied children, animals, people with mental impairment VI. Battle of the Schools: Structuralism vs. Functionalism a. Structuralism led by Edward Titchener i. Analyze consciousness into basic elements ii. Primarily via introspection b. Functionalism led by William James i. Function or purpose of consciousness ii. Led to investigation of mental testing, developmental patterns, sex differences iii. May have attracted first women to psychology c. Who won the Battle? i. Most historians: James and functionalists 1. Introspection does not allow independent objective evaluation of a claim ii. Applied psychology and Behaviourism - descendants of functionalism 1. Behaviourism - early 1900s; major influence on psychology VII. Gestalt Psychology a. Max Wertheimer (1900s) b. Perceive objects and patterns as whole units c. Whole perceived as more than sum of parts. d. Direct response to Structuralism. e. Phi phenomenon: VIII. Psychoanalysis 2 a. Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) i. Life 1. Mother 20 years younger than father a. sexually attracted to his mother ? 2. Married Martha Bernays; violent, jealous, moody courtship 3. Wife & family did not accompany on vacations couldnt keep up 4. MD: specialized in neurology 5. Importance of dreams 6. Freudian slips like I dont think weve been seduced ii. Freuds Structures of Personality 1. Id: instincts, pleasure principle, completely unconscious 2. Ego: demands of reality (reality principle) & partially conscious 3. Superego: deals with morality iii. Psychosexual Stages 1. Oral: <1 yr. If needs unmet, thumb-sucking, pencil- chewing, overeating & smoking may ensue 2. Anal: 1-3 yrs. If anal needs frustrated, result is extreme order or disorder 3. Phallic: 3-6 yrs. Sexual desire for other sex parent, results in super-ego 4. Latency: 6-11 yrs. Sexual urges quieten, social values from adults & peers 5. Genital: adolescence+. If earlier stages successful, mature sexuality emerges. iv. Controversy and Influence 1. Behaviour influenced by unconscious. 2. Conflict related to sexuality is key. 3. Psychoanalysis: theory of personality & therapy for treatment of personality disorders 4. Controversial, caused debate and resistance. 5. Significant influence on psychology & popular culture. IX. Behaviourism i. Behaviour that was observable, measurable & therefore, objective and scientific. ii. Internal, non-observable behaviour was not legitimate topic in psychology b. Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) 3
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