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PSYC 1002 Lecture Notes - Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Electroconvulsive Therapy

Course Code
PSYC 1002
Mara Fuentes Avila

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2 main categories of treatment:
1) biological/biomedical : some mental disorders are diseases
- biological caused for disease
- therapy: drug treatment, electroconvulsive, psychosurgery
2) psychological: mental disorders at a psychological level
- insight therapy -> should be explained by understanding nature/cause
- behavior based on symptoms -> symptoms are the problem
involves directly treating the symptoms
- all diverse approaches to deal with mental disorders and psychological problems
- general term for treatments
Insight (talk therapy):
- goal: get insight, explore different states of the patient to understand nature/causes
of the problem
- verbal interactions with patient
1) Psychoanalysis [therapy]
- Freudian concepts: 3 levels of awareness, 3 structural components of personality
- Root of mental disorders: unconscious problems of childhood experiences
try to uncover (unconscious) feelings to understand the nature of the
- Patient will become aware of problems – sources and better understand themselves
- Become ready to face the conflicts and find ways to resolve them
2) Client-centered therapy
- Rogerian approach
- Objective: gain understanding of the patients causes of the problem

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- alter behavior
- behavioral patterns of responses
- work with therapists in order to alter behavioral patterns
- pathologies should be treated as diseases
- focus on modifying the physical functioning -> specifically the brain functioning
Psychoanalysis: Freud’s view of the root of disorders
Intrapsychic conflicts -> Anxiety -> Reliance on defense mechanisms
Intrapsychic: conflicts between the id, ego, super-ego
- Freud: persons behavior is the outcome of the conflicts
- Conflicts will not manifest – will be hidden in the unconscious
- Will generate specific types of behavior
- Unresolved conflicts (that are hidden) will result in anxiety but person won’t know
the cause of the anxiety
- Distress: anxiety – find defense mechanisms in order to get rid of anxiety
- > anxiety causes psychological tension
- Conflicts generate anxiety, the person deals with anxiety through use of defense
mechanism: (largely unconscious structures)
- Rely on defense mechanism, but denying the reality – becomes a vicious cycle
- At some point don’t have resources to handle the distress – seek help from outside
Insight Therapies (Psychoanalysis)
Therapist will conduct therapeutic sessions by 2 techniques:
1) Free Association
- Patient talks about anything that comes to mind
- When the patient talks about anything, whatever they say will reflect their
unconscious/inner thoughts

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- What they are saying will reflect unconscious thoughts
- Analyst writes down
- At the end of the session, information is analyzed, interpreted by the analyst
- Understand the meaning behind words/information given by the patient
- Interpret the meaning behind associations that the patient describes
2) Dream analysis
- Widely used by Freud
- When a patient describes a dream: good insight to ego defenses which are relaxed
during the sleep
- -“dreams are royal road to unconscious”
- Have to interpret after the therapy
- Interpret: what the patient says in person, and what the person says through dream
- Analyst tries to explore the unconscious
- Patient verbalizes based on his/her experiences
- Techniques used to help the patient verbalize thoughts, feelings etc
- Analyst: role to interpret what the patient says
- Problem: making diagnosis – not the end of the problem
- Give patient your interpretation and have to monitor patient’s verbal, emotional reaction
to what you said
- Sometimes what you observe does not correspond to internal feelings of the patient
- Giving and receiving feedback from patient
3 basic mechanisms/strategies that analysts use
1) Interpretation: material that the patient provides
2) Resistance: patients seek help, but at some point in the treatment they will resist it
- why? Because they are used to rely on defense mechanism
- Therapists know this and know that at some points they will receive resistance
- At some point patients are not ready to receive the information that the analyst is
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