Monday July 15 Ch. 10 continued
• THE MYSTERY OF SEXUAL ORIENTATION
1. HETERO/BI/HOMO SEXUAL: This has to be looked at as a continuum. This is
because some people have homo/bi/hetero thoughts, and some act them out.
Some people only have one instance of a homo/bi/hetero sexual
2. THEORIES EXPLAINING HOMOSEXUALITY:
a) ENVIRONMENTAL-FREUD’S THEORY: At one point in development, young
boys are sexually attracted to their mom, and young girls to their dad. At one
point, they realise this is unacceptable and internalize the feeling. Eventually,
they will express the feeling with another man/women. According to the
theory, if there is divorce or marital issues with the parents the child becomes
confused and will likely be homosexual.
b) BIOLOGICAL: Fair evidence has been found to suggest sexual orientation is
biological. Twin studies were used to prove this. Prenatal hormonal influences
are also thought to play a role.
c) INTERACTIONIST: The idea of a combination of variable, more so with
women. We see more stability in males with their homosexuality than
females. It is also possible that females have more of a social influence than
males. Males seem to be more biological while women tend to be more
• AFFILIATION MOTIVE: Need for social bonds. Worry more about acceptance; devote
more time to interpersonal activities.
• ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVE: Need to excel. Work harder and more persistently, delay
gratification, pursue competitive careers. Situational influences on achievement motives.
• Affiliation/achievement motives are often determined usually by asking subjects to
describe a simple picture. Their motives can be determined based on the aspects of the
picture they choose to focus on.
• Certain personality traits are often linked with affiliation/achievement motives.
• THE ELEMENTS OF EMOTIONAL EXPERIENCE
1. COGNITIVE: Thinking our way into a feeling. Fear of public speaking- we tell our
selves it is stressful, so we can tell ourselves it isn’t. We have the power to
change our own cognitions. 2. PHYSIOLOGICAL: The nervous system. There are different physical responses
for different feelings/emotions. It has been found that some emotions are
instantaneous, while some take time to process. This is essential to the fight