Wed. August 7 Ch.15: Treatment of
• Types of Treatment
I. Insight therapies: Talking to the patient
II. Behaviour therapies: Changing overt behaviour
III. Biomedical therapies: Drugs
• Who seeks treatment?
1. 15% of US population in a given year
2. Most common problems are depression and anxiety
3. Women more often than men
4. Those with medical Insurance
5. Those with a higher education level
• Who provides treatment?
1. Clinical psychologists: focus on diagnosed disorders, PhD.
2. Counselling psychologists: focus on other issues, not necessarily full blown
3. Psychiatrists: work almost exclusively with people who have diagnosed disorders.
Has a medical degree and can prescribe medications.
4. Clinical social workers
5. Psychiatric nurses 6. Counsellors: Anyone can be called a counsellor. Typically, they will have a master’s
degree in an applicable field. Often are specified to very specific areas like in schools
or for families.
• Insight therapies: Psychoanalysis
1. Freud and followers: Goal to discover unresolved unconscious sexual conflicts
between superego and ID. We often supress this conflict and it surfaces as mental
I. Free association: the first thing that comes to your mind.
II. Dream Analysis: “road to the unconscious”
III. Interpretation: subjective interpretation between free association and dream
2. During psychoanalysis, people will usually go through two stages. Resistance comes
first, where they don’t want to talk or will show up chronically late to appointments.
Next, there will be transference where the patient starts treating the therapist in a
way that they would treat someone important and significant to them.
• Insight Therapies: Client centred therapy
1. Carl Rogers: Humanistic, gets the person to help themselves. Goal to restructure
self-concept to better correspond to reality. Developing an open and unconditional
2. Therapeutic Climate
I. Genuineness: open, honest
II. Unconditional positive regard: no judgement
III. Empathy: feeling for the client • Insight therapies: Positive Psychology
1. Fava: well-being therapy. Emphasising positives of self-acceptance, developing a
sense of purpose.
2. Seligman: positive psychotherapy. Mostly to treat depression, focus on positives.
“Count your blessings”. Finding your inner strength.
3. Group therapy
I. Participants Roles: to be supportive. Helps to realise you are not alone.
4. Couples and Family therapy
5. In some cases for some disorders these therapies can have quite a bit of impact.
However, it is sometimes hard to tell if the therapy is responsible for the improvement
or if spontaneous recovery is at play.
• Behavior Therapies
1. B.F. Skinner: unlearning maladaptive behavior and learning adaptive ones
2. Systematic Desensitization: Joseph Wolpe
I. Classical conditioning: systematic desensitization.
II. Anxiety Hierarchy: start small with pictures of the fear, videos, ect. Then
progress to the real thing
3. Aversion therapy: Alcoholism, sexual deviance, smoking. Pairing something
unpleasant with the pleasant stimuli. Usually used to help with addiction.
4. Social skills training
I. Modelling: see the actio