PSYC 1002 Lecture Notes - Lecture 12: Carl Jung, Collective Unconscious, Analytical Psychology
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Chapter 12: Theory, Research, and Assessment
The Nature of Personality
The concept of personality is used to explain the stability in a person’s behaviour over
time and across situations (consistency) and the behavioural differences among people
reacting to the same situation (distinctiveness).
Personality refers to an individual’s unique constellation of consistent behavioural traits.
•A personality trait is a durable disposition to behave in a particular way in a variety of
situations; adjectives like honest, moody, impulsive, and excitable describe
dispositions that represent personality traits.
•Disposition and dimensions
•The Five-Factor Model
-High Extraversion scores signify that a person is outgoing, sociable, upbeat,
friendly, assertive, and gregarious. Some trait models refer to this as positive
-High Neuroticism scores signify that a person is anxious, hostile, self-conscious,
insecure, and vulnerable. Some models call this negative emotionality.
•Openness to experience
-Openness to experience is associated with curiosity, ﬂexibility, vivid fantasy,
imaginativeness, artistic sensitivity, and unconventional attitudes.
- Agreeableness is associated with people who are sympathetic, trusting,
cooperative, modest, and straightforward; it may have its roots in temperament.
-Conscientious people are diligent, disciplined, well-organized, punctual, and
dependable; some models refer to this trait as constraint and they are related to
high productivity in a variety of occupational areas.
•Freud's’ Psychoanalytic Theory
-Structure of Personality
•Id - Pleasure principle: The Id is the primitive, instinctive component of
personality that operates according to the pleasure principle, which demands
immediate gratiﬁcation and engages in primary-process thinking (primitive,
illogical, irrational, and fantasy oriented).
•Ego - Reality principle: The Ego is the decision-making component of
personality that operates according to the reality principle, seeking to delay
gratiﬁcation of the id’s urges until appropriate outlets can be found, thus
mediating between the Id and the external world.
•Superego - Morality: The Superego is the moral component of personality that
incorporates social standards about what represents right and wrong; the
superego emerges out of the ego at around 3–5 years of age.
-Levels of awareness
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•Sex and aggression, anxiety, defences mechanisms
Development: Psychosexual Stages:
-Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency, Genital
•Fixation= excessive gratification or frustration
•Overemphasis on psychosexual needs during fixated stages
Freud’s Model of Personality Str.
Freud theorized that people have
three levels of awareness: the
conscious, the preconscious, and
the unconscious. The enormous size
of the unconscious is often
dramatized by comparing it to the
portion of an iceberg that lies
beneath the water’s surface. Freud
also divided personality structure
into three components—id, ego, and
superego—which operate according
to different principles and exhibit
different modes of thinking. In
Freud’s model, the id is entirely
unconscious, but the ego and
superego operate at all three levels
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