PAPM 2000 September 24, 2013.docx

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Public Affairs and Policy Management
PAPM 2000
Graeme Auld

1) Decision making theories 2) The Canadian context: Responsible Government Ideology • Many people within government are influenced from ideas elsewhere • Could in fact be inspired by your own ideology • Gives you a lens of framework to work with • Get a force of idea, you see it in history and public policy -> in the 1980s, rise of Reaganomics • Started off as ideas that were perpetuating in specific institutions in the United States and the UK • Perfect storm and ideas gained grown during that time period (during the world war) • There was an economic Malay, made things easier to take ground -> supply side economics, Thatcher and Reagan Third Wave • 1990s, The rise of the third way, which was the reaction to Reaganomics, see a group of academics inspired by the world of economics • Social cohesion and community came from the left wing ideology • The social democratic movement had a chance to reinvent itself post collapse of communism and post Reaganism, rise of Blaire, Clinton, Chretien, etc • Untraditional liberals and social democrats because they embraced market economies • All force of ideas • Everything comes from ideas • Movement and traction • After the third wave was the financial crisis • During 3rd wave, you saw unprecedented movements Financial Crisis • During the 2008 recession, crash, it brought down all market rules and values • How to combine the tools • Could see another set of ideas and new ways of doing things that may come from the financial crisis Idea Institutions: • Start with an idea o Come from the government but may come from elsewhere (other countries, academia) o Come from ideology (ex, reaganomics) rise of different type of politics with untraditional liberals and social democrats (third way, 1990s) o Movement then gains traction o After the Third Way came the economic crisis of 2008 o What follows is a pretty neutral, unfiltered analysis, using some kind of scientific method •Moves to Analysis: o Very neutral unfiltered analysis o Based on the assumption that people are rational and they will be influenced by incentives o Come up with many options • From these options only a few must be selected to bring to the next step • They can be selected to help influence decision  Present the extreme option to make the other look more appealing o They'll bring the idea to bureaucrats after this, o This is where rational choice theory comes in •Politicians o Receive options o You do the analysis based on the assumption that people are rational and that people will behave a certain way based on incentives •Negotiation: o Political battle can occur o Politics and interest will play a part in this step but it could in fact influence the previous steps too o In most liberal democracies, they will be subjected to so much politics and interests that you end up with a small incremental plan •Implementation o Incremental o Change often occurs as increments •When you do an analysis like this, you're probably not going to come out with 2 or 3 options, you're going to come out with 20 of them •How we do this is all about institutions •In the US for example, negotiation is extremely important and there is a lot of activity around this •In Canada, it is more politicians that play a pivotal role •Function of our institutions •Laws, institutions Canadian Insitutions •We have to learn to understand really well so that we can understand how policy is made in Canada •First need to talk about policy institutional regime in Canada, it is the inner logic and ties, logistics that ties the political institutions of a country into a coherent hole •Two elements: o Country's institutions of Government o Principles that inform those institutions •Can take those institutions and drop them in different countries, but still get variations and results •Underlying principles that are not understand are in the backdrop • Setting a principle in Canada: We apply it differently relative to, for ex. The Americans Institutions: • Tell you who is able to make decisions and when • Processes • Policy legacies: things that happen in past and now set an important precedent • Things like healthcare are legacies that we already have that guide our vision • In the US they have certain legacies in respect to foreign policy, they have a starting point different form ours • Part of our institutional policy regimes • Any key social characteristics • Religion shapes our policy as well -> remnants from our policy legacy, ex. Catholic school • There is a divide between Canada and the US, ours is more catholic, theirs are more protestant • Our demographics also shape our policy • Regime is more than a constitution -> it is part of the insti
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