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Lecture

Religion Sept 30.docx

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Department
Religion
Course
RELI 1710
Professor
Zeba Crook
Semester
Winter

Description
Sept 30, 2011 476, roman empire dies The church steps in to fill that power vacuum. The bishops step in. CHRISTINAITY IS THE STATE. The holy roman emperor rules the world. Religion and politics VERY intertwined->political stakes in this religion Crusades start, and split with Constantinople eventually Crusades:  637 CE – fall of Jerusalem to Umar (muslim hands)  1010 CE – Church of the Holy Sepulcher burned down by a Muslim caliph  1071 CE – Turkish Muslims persecute Christians in Jerusalem ->life for Christians becomes difficult  1095 CE – First of many Crusades  1099 CE – Crusaders win back Jerusalem  They’ll lose it again in 1187 to Muslims  Will change hands several more times in the 1200s About 9 crusades. The ones after that were just raping and pillaging. Went to try to take back Jerusalem. When they gained power, they refused to give it up to Rome. Jerusalem trades hands many times between Christians and muslims. Eventually Christians lose power, and stays in muslim hands Converted villages on the way to Jerusalem East/West split:  catholic = “universal” ◦ Rome exercising more control, assuming central authority  1054 CE – official split of Bishop of Constantinople from Bishop of Rome ◦ Bishop of Rome = the Pope (when takes over, starts to have the most power. Other bishops, 4 of them, in Alexandria, Rome, Constantinople..etc. when they get more power, they get more wealth. Constinantinople seperates, the nail in the coffin is when rome sacks the city.  Creation of Eastern Orthodoxy and Roman Catholicism (will never join again. Latin=roman catholic, greek=eastern orthodox) Theological issues: the Filioque clause (means and the son) From  And I believe in the Holy Spirit, the Lord and Giver of life, who proceeds from the Father to  And I believe in the Holy Spirit, the Lord and giver of life, who proceeds from the Father and the Son Want to change the creed. This helps in rupture between west and east. Trinity. Eastern says it doesn’t make sense for the holy spirit to come from father and son, instead of the son and holy spirit coming from the father Eastern orthodoxy:  Cyril (826-69 CE)  vernacular  new alphabet based on Greek letters  Cyrillic Alphabet – Russian Constantinople =Istanbul. They never become wealthy like rome, which is fed by western Europe. Result is rome becomes more powerful and influential. Eastern don’t impose with iron fist that rome rules with. Don’t force people to speak greek. Cyrilic (Cyril was the guy who helped eastern orthodox spread. Created new language instead of imposing) Unique dress and art (lots of gold leaf, very distinct look) in eastern orthodoxy  7 c. debate  Iconoclasts vs Iconodules Praying to the painting? Is it okay to pray to and in front of these paintings? Iconoclasts want to break this practice, iconodules want to keep them (they win). The painting is like the finger pointing towards god. Not the object of the praying is what they decided on. Further division:  Massive social change in Europe ◦ Urbanization (more of a move to cities, height of cultural life, etc. Problem is they now live very close together. Now they have access to each others’ ideas) ◦ Literacy (rising! Cultures before this, the elite top 5 percent of society were able to read. Pre-literacy. Now most people can read=great social change. First thing they want to read is the bible. Scriptures have been a controlled substance. There are problematic things that happen in the bible: genocide, rape, incest. This with harm faith and therefore salvation if people don’t know how to interpret) ◦ Growth of vernacular languages (rise of local languages. German, English, French, etc. This is when that STARTS. Represents rebellion against church- church speaks latin. Church doesn’t want to translate) ◦ Printing press (1456) (blows everyone out of the water. Gutenberg prints bible first. All hell breaks loose. Change what they think about roman catholic church. Social implications. People can disseminate and print any ideas. Germination of ideas starts. Vatican want to stop social revolution by stopping the printing. Protestant (reformation) starts) Rome was centre of power, ties, and money. Funds buildings that ads to glory of roman catholic church. Growing resentment in germany about corruption, etc. Martin Luther (1483-1546 CE)  Corruption in Rome ◦ Exploitation of Northern European churches ◦ Indulgences (takes time off of purgatory. Halfway between heaven and hell to work off sin before you can go to heaven. By giving money to church, hasten salvation)  95 Theses of Luther (1517 CE) ◦ Wittenburg ◦ Direct challenge and refutation of many Catholic ideas Nailed ideas to church doors. Everyone was doing this. People would go to debates like boxing matches. Very pointed undermining of power of roman catholic church Diet of Worms (council meeting, pronounced like this in german)  Charges (1521 CE): ◦ Excommunication (charged. Removed from church community, salvation, and Christianity. Meant to make them apologize) ◦ Political subversion (challenged power of church and state. Church is the state)  Excommunication: Placing one outside the community of believers Luther’s Radical Ideas  Sola fide / Sola gratia ◦ “by faith alone” / “By grace alone” ◦ Humans can do nothing to affect salvation. Buying and selling of relics (splinter of wood from the cross of jesus, milk of mother of god), indulgences. This shouldn’t help save you, it’s god’s gift that he saves you because you don’t deserve it  Sola scriptura ◦ “By scripture alone”. If some notion can’t be traced back to scripture, it isn’t legitimate. Church doesn’t apologize. Based in tradition. Luther would have rejected papal infallibility ◦ All practice and belief must be found in scripture  Jewish Karaites  Christian Lutherans  Muslim Wahhabis Effects of Luther’s Protest – 1  Protestant Reformation Breaking up of Christian unity Effects of Luther’s Protest - 2  Local authority = multiple splintering ◦ Calvin / Calvinism ◦ Presbyterianism ◦ Anabaptists ◦ Mennonites ◦ Puritans ◦ Quakers ◦ Baptists  (evangenicals) When he takes away power from the church, anyone can start own religion. Educated or not, all you need is followers. They can interpret scripture on own. Thousands of protestant denominations Effects of Luther’s Protest – 3  Council of Trent – 1545-63 ◦ Counter Reformation ◦ Too little too late for reconciliation Kind of overtures made. Not allowed to vote, but are invited to conference Anglicanism  Henry VIII King of England ◦ Church of England ◦ 1534 CE  Episcopaleans (known as this in US, didn’t get along with England so needed to rename it. Means overseers) Different from Protestantism, or the same? Scholarly debate. Religion and church are very intertwined. Henry wants to divorce. He breaks away from rome, establishes nation state. Political and theological issue. King or queen always head of Anglican church. Rowan Williams: archbishop of Canterbury -diocese: churches in a geographical area Modern Catholicism:  Vatican II: 1962-65 (was a council of bishops of the world)  Modernisation of some Catholic practices, not others  Ecumenical (bridge gaps between divisions, catholics, eastern orthodox, Christians and jews, etc. recognizes all religions are value. Holds Catholicism is still the best, but not everyone is doomed to hell now. They have part of the truth)  “Traditionalists” (disagree about formation of the Vatican. Speak in Latin) When priests break ranks, kicked out of church. Catholicism likes unity Had to let catholic services to be in the language of the locals. Music modernised. ISLAM:  Arabic-Hebrew words built on a three letter root ◦ S + l + m: islam, muslim  Islam = complete trust of and surrender to the will of god (submit)  Muslim = the person who submits Muslims can be born into a Musl
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